[♪ INTRO] Astronomers use x-rays to study stuff in space
all the time. They’re a fairly standard part of the toolkit. But this week, in a paper published in Nature
Astronomy, an international team used a new strategy
in order to observe a very distant, very young galaxy undergoing rapid star formation. Basically, they used a galaxy cluster to look
at the x-rays emitted by a galaxy behind it. And they did so in order to look into the
very, very distant cosmic past. Massive bodies like galaxies have gravity,
and gravity can bend light. The bigger the body, the bigger the light
bending, and as the light bends, its source appears
magnified to us. It’s like the lens in a telescope, except
instead of being glass in a tube, it’s something like a black hole in space. Also like a telescope, it helps us see things
farther away than we normally could. This process is called gravitational lensing,
and it works with all wavelengths of light. Until now, however, lensing studies have mostly
been done using lower-energy wavelengths, like infrared
and microwave. But really energetic phenomena, like star
and galaxy formation, emit really energetic light, like x-rays. Which was just the ticket for observing this
sprightly young galaxy. The light we can see from this galaxy is about
9.4 billion years old, so these observations represent a galaxy pretty
early in the universe’s life. The newly-formed stars there were mostly low
mass and low metallicity, meaning there were very few elements present
that are heavier than helium. But the fact that this galaxy is visible in
x-ray light means that there’s got to be x-ray sources there, and
that’s not these low-mass stars. You gotta get real big and real energetic
before you emit x-rays like that. When galaxies are young and forming lots of
stars, some of those stars will form high mass x-ray
binaries, or HMXBs, two big stars orbiting each other that emit
a bunch of x-ray light. Unlike their low-mass siblings, these star
pairs are huge and short-lived. Usually, one ends up dying, collapsing into
a neutron star or maybe even a black hole, and then starts siphoning off its partner’s
atmosphere. All this produces huge x-ray jets and shockwaves
that can affect the whole galaxy, and even stuff outside of the galaxy, in ways
we don’t yet fully understand. For instance, we don’t know for sure how
related star formation is to the formation of HMXBs. Maybe the shockwaves help trigger star formation. HMXBs also may help us answer another big
question in cosmology. See, the intergalactic medium, that is, the
gas between galaxies, has an electric charge, and we do not know why. It’s basically a hot, charged plasma now,
but observations of very distant and therefore very old targets suggest that
it used to be totally neutral. So where did the charge come from? Well, those x-ray jets would definitely help! X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation, meaning
they can totally charge gas. That means enough galaxies with enough HMXBs
could do the trick. Or, at least could be part of the trick. But either way, more studies of HMXBs will be a fascinating window into the early universe
and the formation of the first galaxies. Much closer to home, after two years of delays, NASA got its ICON mission off the ground last
Thursday. ICON is gonna orbit the Earth to study the upper-most, charged part of our atmosphere,
called the ionosphere. It’s where low-earth orbit is, so most of
our satellites, including the ISS, live there. When solar winds interact with the ionosphere,
you can get beautiful auroras, and you can also get, like, satellite-damage. A bad enough solar storm could knock out GPS
communications and be super dangerous to astronauts, so NASA is pretty motivated to figure out
how to protect against that. Until recently, we thought that the ionosphere
was only affected by solar winds, but it turns out that storms on Earth can
affect it too. Extreme storms like hurricanes can produce
turbulence that can churn up the atmosphere all the way to the ionosphere, creating really
dense patches of plasma that we definitely don’t want our satellites
to go through. But even less dramatic weather, like sustained
winds, can produce turbulence in the ionosphere. So ICON is going to study the ionosphere to
better understand the connection between the sun, the ground,
and the sky. And ICON’s coolness isn’t limited to the
satellite itself. The rocket that carried it has a very neat
little launch procedure. Called Pegasus XL, it gets launched from the
air. It’s carried a little under 12,000 meters
into the air by a huge plane, then it is let go, so it free-falls for about five seconds. And then it launches! The idea is that, at that altitude, there’s
less friction from the atmosphere, so the rocket doesn’t need as much fuel. And you don’t need a fancy launch pad for
it, just a runway. Of course, you still need jet fuel in the
plane that gets it up there, so there’s a tradeoff, but it’s a launch process that the Pegasus
rockets have used since the early 90s. And it looks cool and it gets the science
done, so win-win. Thanks for watching SciShow Space, which is
a Complexly production. And it is an exciting week here at Complexly,
because we’re trying something totally new. Actually, three somethings. It’s Complexly Pilot season! We’re launching three brand new shows, each
on their own channel. Each show will run for 3 episodes for 3 weeks, and then we will decide if we want any of
those shows to continue on. There’s History Pop, which will dive into
the intersection of history and pop culture, and will air on Tuesdays through the end of
October. Stories Retold, an all-ages series about fables
and fairy tales, will go out on Wednesdays through the end
of October. And Hashed Out, will help viewers navigate
the media landscape from journalism to Twitter. Posting Thursdays through, you guessed it,
the end of October. We love all of these ideas, but we don’t
have the bandwidth to make all of them happen at the same time, so we would love your feedback on what you
think we should continue. Check ‘em out and share your thoughts. Links are all in the description. Thanks! [♪ OUTRO]

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. We can only see the past. The further the light travels the further back in to the past we see. The problem is, as light distorts, what we see distorts. Therefore, we have no clue as to what is the real view of what we think is the past.

  2. There's an unexplained planet the size of Jupiter. 34billion miles from its star . I don't know how they are the planet but its only 10million years old.
    To young to rogue planet.
    And to fare for much matterials or fast spinning to form their.
    Maybe it's not a planet.
    To open a stable traversable wormhole would take the engery equivalent to mass of Jupiter or that planet.
    And fare from your solar system for many safty reasons fare from your Solar system is way you would put it

  3. Im here for science news, not the other stuff. Dunno why Complexy thought it'd be a good idea to announce here.. we're likely not the target demographic at large.

  4. …'gobblygook…gobblygook…gobblygook'…ionizing radiation does-not "charge" gas, it ionizes, it, to neutral plasma, ions, individually 'charged', but collectively,-not…and—before that one—light paths do-not arc-back toward-straight, just-arc-less…and…gravity lenses are rarely,-if-not-never (sic) singular-focusing, because, unlike your crystal balls (marbles-whatever), deeper gravity bends light more tidally 'like…holes', not less…

  5. SciShow Space: 6minutes 35 seconds

    Subaru Asia – 28 minutes
    Shopback – 2 minutes

    Wow that took me 35 minutes, just watching this video.

  6. Am I the only one who wishes Hank did all the videos.

    Hes the easiest to listen to, might be a little bias from my younger years when brotherhood 2.0 was happening

  7. Dark matter and antimatter with zero space controls the entire gravity that is in the center core of the earth. And that is a neutrino. That makes the earth wobble in 23.5 degrees as it spin around its axis. The bigger the mass around the dark matter and antimatter the greater the gravity with mass that wraps around zero space magnetic 🧲 poles made of dark matter and antimatter with zero space.

    Neutrino causes the center to melt as it tries to escape from the mass wrapped around.

    But in the stars it causes a nuclear fusion.

    Example to slow down a neutrino and capture for only one second you need 355 foot titanium wall.

    Therefore to hold in the neutrino for billions of years much stronger element bonds as they melt around dark matter and antimatter from the gas cluster clouds are needed during their formation.

    The entire solar system of the sun has been formed around the same time as chunks of gas cluster could gathered in chunks to form their inner center cores.

    That is why both the sun and earth were formed around same time 4.5 billion years ago including all other planets and the moons at more or less at the same time.

  8. I think commercial (all) aircraft should be electric and should be lifted and launched vertically with automated lighter than air balloon drones (like they do with some rockets) which could partially deflate and fly themselves back down to the airport after proportionately deflating until a plane gets above its stall speed and it releases itself during takeoff from the balloon. The hot air or gas, drone batteries, aircraft batteries, etc could all be powered/created with solar power and planes could even be taken higher than their desired cruising altitude for more gliding fuel advantage.

  9. Perhaps you were trying to suggest this and I’m too dense to get it. Since we have a certain sphere of universe that we can observe due to speed of light couldn’t a gravitational lens far enough out grant us the ability to see past what would normally be our observable universe? If you understand my convoluted explanation.

  10. Air launch has been around a long time (X-1 through X-15 for example) and with Virgin Galactic and Virgin Orbit a while longer still. Perhaps Stratolaunch will be reborn to join the party too at some point?

  11. 04:00 The Low Earth Orbiteange extends up to 2000 km / 1300 mi, while the ionosphere is much lower than that, up to about500 km / 300 mi, so not all the LEO sattelites are affected. Also, there is not such a thing as “GPS communication” (maybeGPS broadcast or propagation). The NAVSTAR GPS sattelites themselves are not affected by ionosphere, as they are orbitting at about 20000 km / 13000 mi.

  12. Okay, HMXBs May collapse into black holes OR neutron stars (if the HMXB isn’t big enough to become a black hole). So, does that mean that a neutron star is just a black hole waiting in the wings, and will become a black hole when it collects more mass (as it inevitably must)? In other words, are neutron stars just an intermediate step in the formation of black holes? And therefore, did all black holes first become neutron stars before becoming black holes (even if for the tiniest fraction of a second)?

    And, what is the ratio between black holes and neutron stars? There must be a whole boatload of neutron stars in the universe. The possibility of the existence of a plethora of neutron stars hadn’t occurred to me before. I always had the impression neutron stars were a space rarity. Clearly they aren’t rare at all (universe-wide).

  13. Why are they called X-rays in English?
    We just call them Röntgen-radiation in my country.

    Seems disrespectful to call them something other than that.

  14. Doesn't the red-shift of these distant galaxies mean the radiation we observe as x-rays started out with much higher energy?

  15. Seriously? No, seriously? So, all these years we’ve never considered, for even a second, that something so massive and active as a hurricane had no effect on something as close as the Ionosphere? Let’s consider this: hurricanes can be hundreds of miles across. The Ionosphere starts at around only 31 miles above the surface… Of course storms affect the Ionosphere!

  16. Wow so space isn't electrically neutral after all! Who would have thought heheh. But we've always been told 'space must be electrically neutral!' Guess not lol… This fact should have serious implications for how we consider idea's around electric currents in space and their possible consequences.

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