okay so this talk is called megaliths and mysteries of ancient south america and we're going to be looking at the origins of the gods in Peru and Bolivia and the influence over the Inca culture and how they created some of the most amazing megalithic structures on the planet my name's Hugh Newman I'm an author researcher and Explorer and I've been visiting Peru and Bolivia since 2007 I've visited the area ten times over the last decade or so and to me it's one of the most important megalithic places on the planet so it's based in South America along the west coast and one of the most important areas we're going to look at is the area around Cusco but then we're gonna move to the area of Lake Titicaca on the bottom right there we have manco capac he was the founder of the Inca Empire however their stories go much further back talk about tall bearded people coming from the area of Lake Titicaca an influence in the local cultures around Cusco and around the Sacred Valley where Machu Picchu and Oriente Tambo are and creating the megalithic temples that we see there today although they're really now credited as being built by the Inca one of the most interesting areas around Cusco is not only the hills where we have sex a woman but it's the fact that actually there's a strange Puma type being like an effigy in within the landscape there and you can see that in this image here and it's thought that this was part of the creation part of the building of Cusco was based around the sacred Puma and we'll see why that's important there's even Lake Titicaca potentially they believed was representation of this great humor and it's thought with the origin myths of the Inca are really quite interesting because they're very similar to the origin stories of Viracocha which we'll look at a bit later and they talk about the two children of the Sun manco capac and Mama Oklahoma Co who were both brother and sister and husband and wife they were sent by the Sun from the area of Lake Titicaca with a golden wedge and they were destined to sink into the earth where they should found their civilization where they placed it in the earth was in central Cusco a place called the core akansha now the Korra cancer itself is a very beautiful place it's been built up now it's like a Christian Church and temple almost like a cathedral of ancient Peru and it was supposed to have been founded by the Inca but this evidence as we'll see and as I've already discussed that it may be much earlier so officially in the 1400s it was being built a few hundred years ago and it really marks the center of the ancient Inca war but also the H and D on well going back before the Inca the first Inca ruler manco capac ordered the building of the original temple but it was a ninth Inca patch of KU Tech who enlarged improved and modernized it from about 14 38 onwards and you can see here this is what a model which is on display at the site itself in the interior museum and you can see he's got a gold rim around the top of the walls and it's thought the entire temple was covered in gold and silver this is an artist's impression of what it may have looked like and this was completely engulfed in gold they were they saw gold as like we see a normal kind of metal or normal ceramic there was so much of it available to them they took it for granted and they were surprised that when the Spanish came over that they were even interested in it because it wasn't their most precious this precious metal or anything like this the interior contain temples and you can still see some of these temples now dedicated to the Sun Moon rainbow stars thunder and lightning and many other things there was also a moon temple which was covered in silver and so we see that even now all of this gold has gone all of the silver is gone I was taken by the Spanish invaders back in the fifteen and sixteen hundreds this is what we see today this is the sensor this is the dead center of the core account its a great bowl with a hole carved in it made up Bassel andesite and this now marks the center although it wasn't originally here it was called the Palace of the Sun or the house of the Sun and the name we have now the korikancha translates as the golden palace and here we can see on the bottom we start to see evidence of very high stone technology this is one of the most fascinating things about Cusco but also about the core akansha is that it has extremely sophisticated stone technologies here some of the most sophisticated on the planet so even if it was built in the 1400 which is unlikely it's probably much earlier it's still very advanced for its time I'm here with David hatch Childress we did a tour there a few years ago but even the stone itself comes from between 30 and 50 kilometers away snot local stone it was specifically chosen to build this particular site and it's also a very interesting location it's the center or the navel of what they believed was the origin point of the country and so it's like an ab le site and navel site access Merliah on fillet of the actual area this is the outer wall of the core akansha and there were a series of what are called kicks coming out from the center of the core akansha 41 straight lines going in all different directions and these were marked through the landscape with hawkers or small piles of stones and offerings throughout the landscape going from hundreds of miles in some cases and they were supposed to be 328 walkers or survey points and if they were thought to represent slightly in a partly astronomical but also partly spiritual and partly surveying of the landscape and they also mark Springs and water sources of the region so even back then even if it was the 1400 or it could have been thousands of years earlier which is more likely it does suggest they had a very high understanding of many different disciplines which we take for granted today and we have some of the walls of the palace which is built around the core akansha we see these beautiful serpent carvings on and we find these all over ancient Peru and in fact all over the world these are some of the walls and some of the serpents and you see all the kind of protrusions we find on some of the stones here this is a thing we find all over Peru we find these beautiful serpent covers these are all 3d relief carvings this is actually within the palace itself in the museum there and we have the 12 sided stone and these are all puffy polygonal stone it's very hard stone very difficult to carve and it's thought that the ancients may have even softened the stone there's one theory and even around the town some of the walls you find these different effigies of boomers or serpents and other such things shaped and placed in the wall and a very playful megalithic manner which is absolutely fascinating but if we head up to the hills of Cusco I'm just going to give you a brief introduction to some of the major megalithic sites here before we head to Lake Titicaca we have saqsaywaman which is a remarkable site and it has some of the most impressive stonework on the planet this is a photo we took back in a couple of years ago 2015 I believe and you could just see how beautifully cut these are these are extremely big stones some of them are up to about 200 tons and this was about twice or three times taller originally until it was kind of destroyed and partly damaged by the incoming Spanish in the sixteen hundreds or a little bit earlier but there were stories and legends that got much further back which talk about the idea that they were actually built by giants they were built by these gods in deep in prehistory and no one knows exactly when and who these people were but when we get to the area of Lake Titicaca and the stories of Viracocha and the creation myths we'll get some idea these are just shows you the size of some of the stones here is really quite stunning when you actually look at this close-up there's even ideas that there's actually a language encoded into the walls of sex a woman they talk about as a gentleman called dr. Cunningham we've done some research into these walls and he believes they're astronomical and geometric values within each of the sides of the stones and this creates almost like an ancient language like a universal language beyond you know writings beyond hieroglyphs actually going back to geometry and maths which can be understood if if they can understand it but any culture at any time so this is an intriguing discovery more research is still being done on this but if this is the case the walls themselves might hold clues much like the Great Pyramid doesn't in Egypt as to the origins of these particular sites and also very high knowledge and high wisdom here's one of the gateways of saqsaywaman and you can see it's gonna trilithon style much like Stonehenge and on the right here we have one of the protrusions which these are no one really knows what these are for it could be to tune the stones others believe they're to tie ropes around to move the stones but it's highly unlikely because some of these are very low relief and you wouldn't be able to get a rope around them then we have these machine-tooled steps up in the top part of saqsaywaman which no one can explain how they did it they've almost been polished but if you were doing this by hand this would take decades to do but they seem to have a technique of softening and carving these stones to a very high degree of sophistication this is me getting quite excited and visiting a sex they were mine like I usually do but you can see the interior and the corners here they even shaped them in a certain way very puffy almost pillow like all along here you can see this as well we have the the way they saw join the corners who design spec we see in different parts of the world including Egypt but further along the Sacred Valley if we had through different part of Peru we grease maps you pitch you and this is believed to be an inca site discovered by human Bingham in the early 1900's but in fact again we have the polygonal megalithic and cyclopean stonework with a very high degree of sophistication once again we even have stories of people going into this area from the late 1800s discovering skeletons and even live tribes of giants along the Amazon this is called the hitching post of the Sun that's Machu Picchu it's believed to be an astronomical clock amongst other things and this is one of the most important aspects because it shows not only a very sophisticated technology but it could also hold clues as to how they recorded the movements of the Sun Moon and the stars this is the outer wall of the temple of the three windows and not many people go to this part but this is very interesting because we see this these kind of striations or some of the stones here this is almost like the stones have been softened we have massive megalithic blocks making up this particular site so matchy Picchu is an impressive site which was later incorporated and probably discovered by the Inca in the 13-14 hundreds or so and they built upon it with these smaller stones we see here and other areas but it was really this original veera culture oriented and inspired building was probably much much earlier potentially thousands of years old and I believe contemporary with other megalithic constructions such as Stonehenge and the Giza pyramids around three or so thousand BC another site in the area along the Sacred Valley is orientate Ambo this is supposedly built by Patrick ooty and it was his royal estate who conquered the region in the 1400s and it was a stronghold from Manco Inca Japan Qui and he was a leader of the Inca resistance some time after this again even when the Inca discovered it it's believed it was already partly destroyed and not completed it was a megalithic temple construction on a mountain and amazingly the stones came from several miles away at the top of another mountain and would have had to be moved across a valley a river swamped and then back up the mountain and some of these stones again are at least a hundred tons again we see the beautiful precision stonework with these protrusions all over the stones we even have one of the up the opposing mountain has what is believed to be the face of very culture with a beard carved into the rock face several hundred feet tall with temples and constructions all around the area we also have very obscure and unusual stones that look like massive keyboard buttons again at orientate on bow and we have these as well and these are all on the top part of the main megalithic temple where the Great Wall is and look and we can just see some aerial shots here of the site itself to get a sense of scale these are terraces which were used for agriculture this is the main area where people visit with the great stones which have got beautiful carvings on them these are some of the massive megalithic blocks that we find all over the site here and it stretches for you no good about a kilometer and you can see carvings within the rocks here we can see the way that all through here down this area down on the Left what are called lazy stones this is where stones that were brought over from the quarry was somehow left there they were carved they were created and here's one example here of me standing next to it and you can see how the size of these now you imagine trying to move a block this big that's probably 20 feet long it's probably 40 maybe 50 tons and they were carrying these somehow from the quarry on top of a mountain across these rivers and up to eientei Tambo itself up another mountain and it's believed their stories there's legends that talk about transportation of these stones was done by magic and it was they would levitate in the stones from one mountain top to the other mountain it's almost like they were using their telekinetic abilities a pretty girl will walk by they would lose their concentration and these stones would fall on the ground and it's like there's several of these there's probably ten of these between the quarry and the site and again some of the stonework here on the Left we have as one and Egypt and orientate Tambo and we'll look at more of these in one of the other lectures but we can see this vertical you know virtually exactly the same scoop marks as though they softened the stone this is as one inquiry in Egypt you can see almost exactly the same style of stone work and querying and it's thought that they were actually using these stones these dolomite diorite blocks to actually carve them which is unbelievable when you look at some of the stone work here at max you pitch you for instance and you can see more evidence of these kind of striations all over the stones you see them here here various parts of Machu Picchu you see them very well on this of tourist photo we took a rock group way back in 2011 some of the striations we didn't know is just until the the photos produced but it's almost like they could scoop the stone they've kind of created this and it's part of the design spec it's part of saying look this is how we did it this is the technology we were using here you go this is the oil Tatum bow and you can see it's just like it's been scooped like an ice cream scoop moving across softened stone and we even amazingly find this at Stonehenge very similar style of scooping the stone so whether they were just master stone carvers and they could work with extremely hard granite and sarsen stone as here in Stonehenge or whether they were able to manipulate the stone whether through sound vibration or as some traditions they say that you know they were using some kind of plant SAP which was soften and melt the stone in Peru but it's really the path of Viracocha which Cusco is on as in Oriente Tambo and Machu Picchu and other places as story that the great god Viracocha was said to have constructed all the sites using a race of giants that he created from the earth and from stone to build these sites along this particular alignment going all the way up to the coast beginning at Tiahuanaco and the area around Lake Titicaca and Viracocha himself kind of translates as foam of the sea in some cases and the stories of him emerging from Lake Titicaca onto the island of the Sun in the middle of Lake Titicaca and then building his empire from there he's an image of Viracocha or some people say manco capac and we could see this is the island of the Sun here these are some earth energy currents which seem to stretch all the way around the world but this is interesting because this part of the island here where we find these constructions on the north part of the island where every culture is said to have emerged from the lake now if this is the case then it does suggest a very ancient origin because Lake Titicaca and the stories there and some of the dating they've they've got back there go very very far back thousands of years BC and he was also known as the new pet or the Thunder God and there's many different strange stories I bought local books I've talked to local guides and wisdom keepers in the area and his legend is so powerful that it's belief of influence the Inca is also he's a representation sometimes represented sometimes as a serpent or even a plumed serpent like we find in Central America where Quetzalcoatl and cuckoo class and even relationships as similarities can be found to a cyrus in Egypt and other areas around the world it's often depicted like at tiwanaku here holding two staffs and he's crying because of the lost land that he was supposed to have come from some people say is Atlantis and here we have other depictions of him emerging from the lake and sometimes is a raft of serpents that he is supposed to have emerged from and so there's lots and lots of very interesting stories about an effect where he's carved onto the landscape into the mountains here it's very interesting he was seen as a teacher a healer a wizard a scientist magician and he looked like a Christian Saint and some of the early paintings much like Jesus he was accompanied by what were called faithful soldiers and shining ones and the various very cultures it was like a group of them it in some cases some stories they went off in different directions to share the message that he was giving to different parts of the world one of these included building megalithic temples along the path of the record show the specific alignment and by a race of earthen or stone giants now the lake was considered the center of the cosmos and the place of creation we see the location of it here we have the island of the Sun we have the peru bolivia border here peru this site bolivia that side many of the in many of the sites around here a very interesting megalithic temples all the way around here as well and this is what it looks like if you turn it the other way up it looks like a stone puma and that's kind of what titicaca translates as stone puma and so the fact that we're having the name is actually a representation of what it looks like is really quite interesting but Tiahuanaco itself is very very powerful site this is an early photo taken into very early 1900s the Cala society temple and the monolith the 99 of them that surrounded that particular temple but all around the lake we find evidence of these different symbols and relationships to vary culture and other gods often depicted in this kind of position with his hands together in an upright position where some kind of headdress or helmet or even a turban we have serpent symbolism all around the lake we find it everywhere and we'll come on to some of these sites in more detail and look at the importance and sophistication of them as we go through this lecture but the very coaches were said to have even headed towards the coasts and in the 16th century written by a magistrate who was named Louie de Monzon he was the first person to announce the Nazca lines to the world people don't not many people know this and he recalled through the local oral tradition that they were linked to people who called themselves the very conscious coming from the area of Lake Titicaca and you see some of the images of the Nazca lines here and these go on for many miles there's hundreds of effigies there's straight lines marked again by these qex or these Huaraz so they were placing sacred part sacred stones in piles along these particular alignments but the ricotta as we mentioned briefly earlier created a race of giants now these are the stone giants that we find in America there's there's depictions of them there's descriptions of them we featured them quite in detail in our book Giants on record date this is David kusik sketches of from 1828 and he talked about these muak Indians and etc talking you know and they were the stone giant we have exactly the same story around Lake Titicaca and the creation of the megalithic sites but he had to also destroy them very katja because these giants got out of hand they became cannibalistic they would attack people they wouldn't obey his commands and continue the work he wanted to be done he had to destroy them with a flood and this is a direct replica it's almost exactly the same as the story of the Nephilim Giants that were created in the biblical tradition going back many thousands of years and this is really intriguing in itself because refining parallel myths and legends relating to giants in different ages of mankind we find similar things in Central America with the store with the Aztec Mayan and Olmec or in stories as well and it throughout South America we have found many examples of actual giant boners being discovered and this is an early depiction of Viracocha wearing his robes he was very similar to Quetzalcoatl in that he was long-haired bearded tall sometimes fair skin which is controversial but this is that these are the stories that they talk about and you can see even facial hair is on this particular depiction of him here and it was also there was an eighth Inca of who was basically called himself the ricotta and again the strange thing is the very early inca the royal inca not only was said to be fair-skinned and sometimes bearded but they spoke a completely different language to the native local people and they looked very different they weren't origin they weren't the origin what didn't seem to be in that part of South America and there's just this is very intrigued and this is a bus there was actually like a full body it was the body is still on display actually in the museum that's in Cusco but indigenous people ranked below Spaniards according to the Spaniards so there was a lot of hoo-ha and people believed that the Spanish tried to make the early gods look fair-skinned to look like them but actually that wasn't necessarily the case and so there's pictorial evidence that suggests they were a kind of different type of human being in that part of the world but Isla del Sol this is in the middle of Lake Titicaca very important place and the birthplace of Viracocha who came from the waters there's a depiction of him here this is the south part of the island where there's some Inca ruins and you're looking over to the island of the moon here and when we do our trips there we take you know take people up to the north part and the southern part of the island but on the north part of the island there's a very interesting ruins this is almost like a tabletop or Dolman construction with a large stone underneath it this is unusual and this has been noted that this type of rock can't comes from the mainland it's not local to the island and just next to that is what is called the rock of the cat or the rock of the Puma on the north part of the island and the interesting geological features of this there on either side of this we have strips of a stone called ulema Knights which is very very electrically conductive and magnetic there's also magnetic red sandstone which is much less magnetic underground water and telluric currents this is a very strong energetic point on the island and this has been noted because there's been strange balls of light have been witnessed here over many hundreds of years potentially thousands of years and the island up until the Inca times were still revered and females will come over there and do retreats on the island going back many hundreds of years so it's a very sacred part of the island and it was because it's the birthplace of Viracocha it's also the birthplace of where it's thought manco capac and the Inca culture came from so the Inca would revere it in a very similar way again we see the shape of the island here and the different parts of it and it's here where you know it's a very important megalithic sites emerged from around the lake not just that part you know we have the southern part of the lake here it's some interesting sites of Santiago je the serpent temple we have Chiappa which is before too unlucky with Kankuro carne and till guanaco itself obviously there's all the southern part of the lake but Europe is a very interesting site officially it dates to 1500 BC up to about 850 BC but it could be much earlier strangely the name of the site actually means lucky break or fluke you know so it's got this lucky kind of feeling strangeness about it and it was built within this certain kind of structure had a sunken temple in the middle with statues and stones around the edge and you can see that here visited here in late 2017 to be slightly reconstructed but it's a remarkable site and you can see the strange kind scoop marks in this particular stone here but it had exposed walls in 1955 years built up on a very large earthen mound it was excavated by Michael Coe in 1955 and they know that quinoa the the grain or the the post was actually grown here around 1200 BC so it's one of the earliest places in this part of the world where they were growing crops and they worked with melted copper and bronze and different tins and metals much like it till one aku and you can see this is where they're kind of reconstructing and excavating the site elongated skulls have also been found at this site as well as very interesting statues like this one which they call a tombstone but there's another site very interesting site just on this peninsula here or O'Shea or Santiago at the O'Shea which means the snake temple and you can see here when it was first discovered there was a big ceremony with the local Andean people and you can see this beautiful serpent you see these beautiful carvings here some of this has now been covered up it's a huge square or rectangular temple area it's at least 2,000 years old although it could be older as myself and JJ Ainsworth there we visited there in late 2017 and this is this is the ground level so they dig down to reveal most of the site here but look at this beautiful carving here and this is stunning it's almost like a cobra type snake it's called the it's called the closest of the Great Serpent Qatari 2-pack and so we have these very strong suggestions that this was you know they were very much worshipping the serpent and now we see this all over the area around Lake Titicaca and it spread out into the Inca Empire and potentially all over the world but the discovery here is quite remarkable no one visits this site it's not on any tourist trail or anything like that we have to make special arrangements to visit here but you can see it's think about this place and the reason it's got this coloring some of it was exposed some of it was burned by local Christians to try and destroy it but it they didn't manage it but it's going to become a major site at some point because of its location and import right next to the lake and there's even ruins under the lake itself nearby just off the coast here is myself and Jim Vieira at tiwanaku we went there together in 2016 it's a very stark landscape to guanaco though is one of the most important sites on the planet I would say again we have the story here of the creation of the sites being built by giants and this is the main a cap on a pyramid this is a neat reconstruction that had the ND and cross all the Chicana pool of water on the top we have a sunken temple here we have a calluses I attempt which had 99 massive megaliths beautifully carved around the edge 99 is the same number of stones we find every in England and we have the the gateway of the Sun we have some of the very cottage of statues here Pumapunku is over in this direction and multiple other temples have been found around here now they think there may even be another pyramid over in this direction it's also flanked by two great fault lines going on either side of the valley and even over the road probably about a mile or so away this thought to be another pyramid so this area although stark is very difficult to grow food it was originally next to the lake you know two or three thousand years ago late titicaca but but it's you know now become pretty derelict they're still excavating here we have the local Aymara people excavating it and more is being discovered but when we see these beautiful old kind of pictures we see the stunning you know just beautifully cut pieces of rock most of this has now been bricked up in between so you can't really see these in detail but this is the gateway of the Sun this is one piece of andesite and an andesite is a very hard type of Bassel and this is found from at least this is from the Cairo copier quarry which is the other side of the lake in print just over the Peruvian side and this is from a mountain so they would've had to bring it across the lake over about 50 or 60 miles just to bring it to the site but here this is the work done by various researchers who've realized that this could represent we have very culture here potentially with the sunrays around this head holding these staffs but also this could be a sophisticated calendar system based upon the movement of the Sun and the moon and you can see that here the way if you're looking across to the one side of the eastern side of the temple we have these stones mark the movement of the Sun throughout the year and this is the work of Jim Allen and you can see here as well this is a remarkable sight and remarkable remarkable discovery and here we have it basically this encodes what we're seeing here and you see the movement as we go through here so each one of these represents a different movement of the Sun here for the different times of the year and this would be the equinoxes in the center then we have the extremes of the solstices on either side and so if this is a case this is very intriguing because this suggests as discovered by Arthur posnansky that indeed this site could be up to 17,000 years old based upon at the Archaea astronomy of the temple this is just one of the largest the Bennett monolith one of the great statues that was being moved there was moved to the center of La Paz but it got moved back to the site this is when it was on display in La Paz you see the sheer magnitude of there from 1938 but it's now back at the site thank God and this is stunning stunning piece of work just in itself then we have puma punku– which is one of the most important parts of the site actually part of Tiahuanaco and we have an aerial shot of it here and you can see the size of this people didn't realize only been excavated recently some of this this is the main area here with megaliths but this area here where the steps are would actually go directly onto the lake titikaka this is like a port site and it goes all the way around here similar shape to Tiahuanaco this is what it would have looked like this is kind of a reconstruction with some of the most sophisticated stonework we've ever seen another reconstruction of how it may have looked and this was a very sophisticated almost Greek style temple and yet potentially it could be many thousands of years old although officially it's only a few hundred years ad that it was supposed to have been built you see some of the stones here these in the famous eight blocks but these are precision carved extremely hard stone there's drilled holes in these there's remarkable sophistication when you're looking at the quality of the stone work here this is just me one of my videos you can watch this on youtube but basically here I'm describing this particular channel which is a water channel and these are along here we have these Keystone cuts where bronze or tin and copper pieces clamps would have been put between the stones and it's thought they were to hold the stones together but now it's actually thought these were in fact to channel the energy through and through the work with John Burke and catch Hallberg it's now being realized these are some of the actual clamps in the museum here and it's now being realized that this was an energetic temple they were flooding water from the pool on the top from the chin karna shaped pool spreading it through and this would create electric charge then you have the fault lines acting you have to lower it currents earth energies and all these other things happening at the site at the same time there was some kind of processing plant some energetic temple system which I go into more detail in in some of the videos I've created on the megalomania YouTube channel it just shows you another view of the site this is the main part of the site as you come in the entrance here you can see some of these blocks some of these red sandstone at least came from about 10 miles away but again the most of the gray andesite came from caricap again over 50 miles away on the other side of the lake some of these were about 200 tons these blocks they're very heavy very a very some of them sinking right into the ground and it really does look like you see this yourself it looks like a Cataclysm has hit the sites so there's a big question mark about this about who really built these sites and the thing is you keep finding these at the site this was actually found right near puma punku– is on display in a local restaurant this one was as well and you can see these are very elongated skulls which were thought to be inked up actually these are before the Inca this one actually got stolen and it's disappeared it's another one found at tiwanaku some very beautiful very strange statues have been found at puma punku and tiwanaku as well we have the great we have the great Pumas they're on display around the town this is actually from a site just south of Tillman aku and puma punku– and this is the Fuente Magna Bowl which something we'll look at in a moment but it's know that the a capella pyramid there's a huge magnetic field right within the center of this particular pyramid here this has been tested again by John Burke and these spirals that are found in the stones may actually represent this but they may also represent other things we have the lightning here and the Thunder and it's known that for Newport or Vera cot sure different names given to him was a thunder God who could control the lightning and thunder that this is a tradition we find in Britain and other parts of the world the hosts hours of thunder tradition often related to giants we have some other beautiful strange carvings found all over – when I could this would have been hidden it's been turned over so this could have been like the doodles or the signatures of the actual builders strangely a stone sphere was found I spotted this in 2014 at the Museum in La Paz and this is almost identical to the stone spheres we find in northern Scotland and so it just gets stranger the more you look into these particular sites again we have some very interesting faces carved stone this was on display at the Museum it's now being removed disappeared again but the features of these don't look South American this is very strange very strange headdresses which we find on many of the statues there and they suggest there are ideas that these represent very Sumerian Babylonian styles that we find in Middle East and so there's several other sites around Lake Titicaca which of interest this just shows you some of them which you can visit all around this area but there's one particularly which people are fascinated by and that's amaru muru which is this one here is my colleague friend Andrew Collins trying to get inside it there and this is carved out of solid rock sandstone no one knows who built this there's different names given to it some people translated its gateway of the gods they're stories of people disappearing they're actually gone into the stone at certain times of year and but the shape of it is very intriguing it's almost identical to the T pillars we find in Quebec Lee Tepe in southeast Turkey also around Lake Titicaca very interesting discovery was made which may link this to other parts of the world the Fuente Magna Bowl which is now on display in the gold museum in Lopez it's supposedly made a quartzite or sandstone according to some theories weighs about 50 kilos but 64 centimeters wide about 20 centimeters high it was found in the village of chewer about just next to the Lake Titicaca but a few miles away from Tiahuanaco it was found in 1953 and so it kind of removes the idea that it was faked for to make money from or anything like this because this was used strangely for pigs to eat their food from on a farm during the 1940s and 50s and yes why would you fake something like this try and make this connection with Sumeria if it was just used to feed pigs from surely you wouldn't go to that much trouble but what they've done they found two different types of Sumerian script in it and this has been analyzed in the 1960s and up to more recently and basically there's some very interesting translations which they think is LMI or proto-elamite which is type of sumerian from Mesopotamia there's decline a winters he's been looking into it and various other academics and the translations come out to be quite interesting so not only have you got a serpent going around the edge of the bowl you've got a mara script in there as well which is a local Indian tradition and that it's almost like the Rosetta Stone of South America and so there's some people a question well what's it all about then and this is actually the translation and what it is it's you know looking at I'll let you read it for yourself but it kind of talks about the goddess Nia talking about fertility and to offer thanks and libations the bountiful fauna and flora in the area that made it possible possible for these Sumerian explorers to support themselves in Bolivia and we believe it may have been because there were trade routes being opened up between these parts and well there may have been there much earlier probably for the metal and tin that was produced here because some of the metals found in the area around Lake Titicaca that produced at Tiahuanaco and Pumapunku have been found in other parts of the world and on the other side of the bowl there's more there's more of these talking about libations and really like incantation it's almost like prayers or you know different kind of stories created to make thanks to the gods and goddesses of the area we have other carvings around the side of the bowl here face is carved on them which are very much like the faces we find at tiwanaku and this connections that have been made between Greek and Egyptian deities with Nia and Leif and other such things suggesting there may have been a global diffusion is Ammar going back around this era which is probably probably around 2000 maybe 3000 BC the interesting thing is the type script that was found on the bowl does date back to around 2500 BC and this we to me that's quite interesting because that's the day I feel these sites would probably built around they found evidence of Neolithic and Bronze Age activity at the sites although most of it they believe is newer than that it's much more recent but it's known that the Sumerians do you seaworthy ships that could sail across the ocean and there's even Jim Allen who's done some brilliant books about this area of Bolivia and South America believes that indeed this was the case that there was connections between these great cultures this is the Pocoyo monolith this was found 10 or 12 miles south of Tiahuanaco and some of the largest statues we find outside the church at till when I could tell are from this site and again we have this very strange script carved on the back of this it's wearing kind of cool pants headdresses showing his ribs for some reason and it could be like a suggestion they were sort difficulties growing the food or so forth but again this is on display in the gold Museum in La Paz Bolivia these are some of the other statues that are found at per koiki are these up these are on display well not on display they're actual in a private room at tiwanaku and you can see this kneeling statue this is a called the quizzo position which is found all over the world mostly with Tiki statues in the South Pacific but here you see like kind of Platts source sumerian type headdresses even goggle eyes which we're going to talk about in another lecture this is the one from till guanaco here these are from the South Pacific on the left here this is actually from Easter Island again you very similar style so we see in connections here all over the world in some very very interesting places there are other sites in this area one of the most notable is pukara these are some of the carvings from pokhara this is just the northern part of the lake around Lake Titicaca and you can see here these look almost identical with these goggle eyes the these headdresses different features kneeling position again strange serpents feathered serpents he needs to see the size of this here this is the site not many people know about but to me this is one of the most important sites it's even suggested it was built before Tiahuanaco and the pucara people may have influenced the tihuanaco culture again this session on display in Lima in the museum in the past on the Peruvian side you can see these crisscross and lizards and protrusions here like we find it in the later Inca culture remarkably similar to Quebec Lee Tepe as well you can't deny the similarities are quite remarkable and and I think there may be connections that we're going to discover in the near future this is actually from Bukhara again almost identical to Gobekli Tepe we find other similarities at places like sillustani and ku Timbo and again these are from the Begley Tepe here the 3d relief carvings again this is from Quebec Lee Tepe just shows you some of the sophistication here and here as well and then you would think this was from Quebec Lee Tepe as well and so on but they're not this is actually from Bukhara on the north part of lake titicaca but when I was there in late 2017 I made some discoveries a surprised me I made a video about this and wrote an article for ancient origins which you can read while I was there I've been very interested in these statues of very culture these goggle eyes also these features these belts this is actually made of diorite which is extremely hard black stone and I've been very interested in the statute is some of the classic statues – when I could prove a poker this is actually under supposedly in the Berlin Museum we're going to go and investigate this soon of a bird God which potentially could be a representation of Thoth from ancient Egypt this is the Bennett monolith this is some of the other ones more Tiki type statues in the sunken plaza but the can't a two-litre temple which is over 2 1 one edge of Tiwanaku we have an old photo over here but just past that on the very eastern edge i found this lost Viracocha statue and this is the stump he would have been standing upright on top of this and I couldn't believe it so I actually walked around there went over the fence found it completely by accident and this has obviously been cleared or the mud and grass has been cut away and things like this and so probably on the other side of this there are carvings because it's been placed in the ground it's probably preserved of the carvings and it's probably been there lion after thousands of years we turned that over at guarantee there's gonna be carvings but so this is one of the monoliths one of the statues that's you know hasn't been recorded ever by any research or any or anyone really archaeologists over the last hundred years or so when I was there I managed to sneak into some of the hidden rooms at tiwanaku at the Museum on site there and discovered about 40 or 50 statues and carvings that I've never seen before and these had never been published so this is all in the article on ancient origins dotnet and also on the video on the YouTube channel one of the most intriguing pieces was this this really blew my mind because it's got these beautiful hexagonal shapes carved on it and they're like 3d tubes coming out across the stone so again this shows very high levels of sophistication what these represent is unclear but there's a few other pieces like this at puma punku so this was probably found at puma punku and created there originally we have other obscure shapes and carvings that were found within this hidden room but it really does suggest that there's a lot more to be discovered they're still excavating puma punku– they're still excavating tiwanaku they're making all these they're making many more discoveries in the area and it really is ripe for investigation and I really believe that there's a deep prehistory here in South America and when more discoveries are being made under the Lake Titicaca when they dig deeper around the Cataclysm here puma punku and tiahuanaco I'm sure more connections with other parts of the world will be found and so thank you for listening and I hope you enjoyed this aerial view and this overview of ancient Peru and Bolivia you