♪ (𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘱𝘪𝘢𝘯𝘰 𝘯𝘰𝘵𝘦𝘴 𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘷𝘦 𝘦𝘦𝘳𝘪𝘦 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘪𝘯𝘨) ♪
MATT: If it looks like we’re at the sci-fi headquarters of some league of superheroes, ♪ ♪
it’s because we are. ♪ (𝘢𝘥𝘥 𝘥𝘦𝘦𝘱𝘦𝘳 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩) ♪
This is Fermilab. ♪ (𝘢𝘥𝘥 𝘥𝘦𝘦𝘱𝘦𝘳 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩) ♪
For over half a century, ♪ ♪
this has been the premier particle accelerator facility of the United States. ♪ ♪
These days, many of the super-powered geniuses of Fermilab are tackling ♪ ♪
the most feeble particle in the universe: ♪ (𝘩𝘪𝘨𝘩 𝘥𝘪𝘨𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘭 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘴 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺) ♪
the neutrino. ♪ (𝘩𝘪𝘨𝘩 𝘥𝘪𝘨𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘭 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘴 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺) ♪
Why? ♪ ♪
Because, this elusive particle may hold powerful secrets, ♪ ♪
from the unification of the forces of nature, ♪ (𝘣𝘦𝘤𝘰𝘮𝘦𝘴 𝘥𝘢𝘳𝘬 𝘥𝘪𝘨𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘭 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩) ♪
to the biggest question of all: ♪ (𝘥𝘢𝘳𝘬 𝘥𝘪𝘨𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘭 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩) ♪
Why is there something rather than nothing? ♪ (𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘶𝘵) ♪
♪ (𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘱𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘳𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳𝘣𝘦𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘴) ♪ ♪ (𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘶𝘵) ♪
(title) “SPACE TIME” (title) “SPACE TIME” ♪ (𝘫𝘰𝘺𝘧𝘶𝘭 / 𝘢𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘪𝘱𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘺 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘱𝘶𝘭𝘴𝘦𝘴) ♪
MATT: Everyone, I want you to meet Dr. Don Lincoln. ♪ (𝘫𝘰𝘺𝘧𝘶𝘭 / 𝘢𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘪𝘱𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘺 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘱𝘶𝘭𝘴𝘦𝘴) ♪
So Don is a particle physics researcher here at Fermilab, ♪ ♪
So Don is a particle physics researcher here at Fermilab, ♪ ♪
but he also writes and hosts many of the awesome videos on Fermilab’s youtube channel. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
Don, Thank you for having us. ♪ ♪
DR. DON: You know, we’re glad you could visit. ♪ ♪
MATT: I’m kind of obsessed with neutrinos; ♪ ♪
it seems like they could open the window into the next frontier of physics. ♪ ♪
DR. DON: We have a very broad research program, ♪ ♪
but our core research program is centered around neutrinos, ♪ ♪
and the big one – the future one – is the DUNE experiment. ♪ (𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘯𝘰𝘵𝘦𝘴) ♪
(text) “Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment”
Its core – and sort of the central most important thing that it’s looking for – ♪ ♪
(text) “Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment”
is to study whether or not matter and antimatter actually act differently. ♪ ♪
As you know from E=mc^2, matter and antimatter should be the same, ♪ ♪
and they’re not. ♪ ♪
DUNE may tell us why. ♪ ♪
MATT: Well, it sounds like we probably need to learn a little bit more about neutrinos. ♪ (𝘥𝘢𝘳𝘬 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘰) ♪ ♪ (𝘥𝘢𝘳𝘬 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘰) ♪
DR. DON: Neutrinos are elementary particles of a type called leptons. ♪ ♪
DR. DON (voiceover): That’s the same family as the familiar electron ♪ ♪
and it’s heavier cousins the muon and tau particle. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
Neutrinos also come in three flavors: ♪ ♪
one for each of the charged leptons. ♪ ♪
So we have the electron neutrino, ♪ ♪
muon neutrino, and tau neutrino. ♪ ♪ ♪ (𝘢𝘥𝘥 𝘥𝘦𝘦𝘱𝘦𝘳 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩) ♪
But all neutrinos have the bizarre quality that they oscillate between these types over time. ♪ ♪
But all neutrinos have the bizarre quality that they oscillate between these types over time. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
Measuring neutrino oscillations is a big part of how we unlock their secrets, but it’s not easy. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
Neutrinos are among the most elusive elementary particles of nature, ♪ ♪
only interacting by the weak nuclear force and gravity. ♪ ♪
DR. DON (voiceover): In fact, it would take a wall of lead five light-years thick to have a 50/50 chance at stopping a single neutrino from the Sun. ♪ ♪
Figuring out ways to detect them is tricky to say the least. ♪ (𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘵𝘰 𝘭𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘵 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮𝘪𝘤 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘱𝘪𝘤𝘬𝘪𝘯𝘨)♪
(title) “MINOS: Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search” ♪ (𝘭𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘵 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮𝘪𝘤 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘱𝘪𝘤𝘬𝘪𝘯𝘨) ♪
MATT: The weakly interacting nature of the neutrino makes them insanely difficult to detect, ♪ ♪
and we’ll be seeing exactly how that’s done soon. ♪ ♪
But in order to have a chance at spotting even one single neutrino, ♪ ♪
a truly enormous number needs to reach the detector. ♪ (𝘷𝘦𝘳𝘺 𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵 𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳) ♪
In order to do that, neutrinos need to be focused into a beam. ♪ (𝘴𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘭𝘦 𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘸𝘩𝘢𝘮𝘮𝘺) ♪
But, if neutrinos are so weakly interacting, ♪ ♪
how do we channel them into a beam in the first place? ♪ ♪
The answer is: ♪ ♪
We don’t; at least, not directly. ♪ (𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵 𝘸𝘩𝘢𝘮𝘮𝘺) ♪
We don’t; at least, not directly. ♪ ♪
MATT (voiceover): The main Fermilab beam line accelerates protons around a two and a half mile circumference ring, using giant electromagnets, ♪ (𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮 𝘣𝘶𝘪𝘭𝘥𝘴) ♪
to around 99.997% the speed of light. ♪ ♪
That’s possible because, unlike neutrinos, protons have an electric charge. ♪ ♪
Those protons are then smashed into a graphite barrier, ♪ ♪
and as they collide with nuclei they produce all sorts of particles. ♪ ♪
More magnetic fields are used to sort the positively charged pion particles from the debris ♪ ♪
and focus *them* into a beam. ♪ ♪
Those pions quickly decay into muons and muon neutrinos. ♪ (𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘢𝘨𝘢𝘪𝘯) ♪
The beam then passes through several hundred meters of solid rock, which blocks the muons, ♪ ♪
The beam then passes through several hundred meters of solid rock, which blocks the muons, ♪ (𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵 𝘸𝘩𝘢𝘮𝘮𝘺) ♪
but the neutrinos pass straight through into an almost pure beam of muon neutrinos ♪ ♪
but the neutrinos pass straight through into an almost pure beam of muon neutrinos ♪ ♪
ready to be sent to our detector. ♪ (𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘵𝘰 𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵ly 𝘣𝘳𝘰𝘰𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘱𝘶𝘭𝘴𝘦𝘴) ♪
(title) “ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals):
Liquid Argon Neutrino Hunter” ♪ ♪
MATT: Down here, we have the ICARUS neutrino detector. ♪ ♪
And, as awesome a piece of science equipment as this looks, ♪ ♪
It’s definitely not five light-years of lead. ♪ ♪
How is it supposed to stop a neutrino? ♪ ♪
DR. DON: Well, ♪ ♪
it’s entirely probabilistic. ♪ ♪
Each neutrino has only a *tiny* possibility of interacting with any particular argon atom, ♪ ♪
so what we do is we shoot 10 trillion neutrinos per second through this detector, ♪ ♪
and only a handful of them actually interact. ♪ (𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦𝘺 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘭 𝘵𝘰𝘯𝘦𝘴) ♪
And so, by doing that, we’re able to understand what’s going on. ♪ ♪
MATT: I think we should go down there. ♪ ♪
Let me try to give you a sense of why neutrinos are so elusive. ♪ ♪
As we mentioned: they only experience the weak nuclear force and gravity, ♪ ((𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵)) ♪
and the latter is so weak we can ignore it altogether. ♪ ((𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵)) ♪
MATT (voiceover): In order to interact with other types of matter, a neutrino needs to ♪ (𝘩𝘪𝘨𝘩 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘸𝘩𝘪𝘯𝘦 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦𝘴 𝘪𝘯) ♪
exchange one of the carriers of the weak force: ♪ ♪
a W or Z boson; ♪ (𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘮𝘱𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘷𝘦 𝘦𝘭𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘤 𝘱𝘪𝘢𝘯𝘰 𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵𝘭𝘺 𝘢𝘳𝘱𝘦𝘨𝘨𝘪𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘴) ♪
or, truly, a virtual boson. It exists only for an instant – ♪ (𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘮𝘱𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘷𝘦 𝘦𝘭𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘤 𝘱𝘪𝘢𝘯𝘰 𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵𝘭𝘺 𝘢𝘳𝘱𝘦𝘨𝘨𝘪𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘴) ♪
just long enough to exchange energy between the neutrino and, say the nucleus of an atom. ♪ ♪
just long enough to exchange energy between the neutrino and, say the nucleus of an atom. ♪ ♪
It borrows the energy it needs to exist from, well, nowhere, really. ♪ ♪
It’s sort of cheats energy conservation by taking advantage of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, ♪ ♪
which tells us that there’s a fundamental uncertainty ♪ ♪
between certain pairs of properties, in this case, energy and time. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
So: the briefer the lifetime of this virtual boson, the more energy it’s allowed to borrow. ♪ (𝘥𝘳𝘢𝘮𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘤 𝘱𝘢𝘶𝘴𝘦, 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘯 𝘴𝘢𝘮𝘦 𝘱𝘪𝘢𝘯𝘰 𝘢𝘳𝘱𝘦𝘨𝘨𝘪𝘰) ♪
Now, the thing about the weak force bosons is that they are massive, ♪ ♪
unlike the massless photon or gluon, which carry the electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces. ♪ ♪
In order to exist, they need to borrow a lot of energy to cover their rest mass. ♪ ♪
That greatly limits the amount of time they can exist, ♪ ♪
and so limits the distance that they can travel. ♪ ♪
In order for a neutrino to interact with an atomic nucleus ♪ ♪
it needs to pass so close that it’s essentially inside the nucleus. ♪ ♪
In other words: ♪ ♪
we need a direct hit. ♪ ♪
DR. DON: And if a neutrino interacts in our detector, ♪ ♪
an Argon nucleus is broken apart and charged particles are released – in particular, pions and muons. ♪ ♪
Those particles then travel through the liquid argon knocking electrons free from atoms. ♪ ♪
We charge the sides of the detector, so a giant electric field fills the entire tank. ♪ ♪
That draws these free electrons to the walls of the tank, which lets us trace out the path of the particles ♪ ♪
From those paths, we can learn all about the neutrino oscillation, ♪ ♪
and that includes the flavour of the neutrino that caused it – be it an electron, muon, or tau neutrino. ♪ ♪
But remember: our neutrino source produces only muon neutrinos, ♪ ♪
so if we detect a tau or electron neutrino, then we’ve seen neutrino oscillation. ♪ ♪
We can use our measurement to determine how much oscillation has occurred. ♪ ♪
When we add that we know how far the neutrinos traveled at the speed of light, we know how fast they oscillate. ♪ ♪
ICARUS is much smaller than the upcoming DUNE experiment. ♪ ♪
Let’s see part of the new accelerator that’s being built to feed DUNE. ♪ (𝘥𝘦𝘦𝘱 𝘦𝘦𝘳𝘪𝘦 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘦, 𝘰𝘤𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺 𝘴𝘸𝘦𝘭𝘭𝘴) ♪
(title) “PIP – II: Proton Improvement Plan – II” ♪ ♪
MATT: We are standing in front of the injection test accelerator for ‘PIP-II’ – that’s the Proton Improvement Plan Two – ♪ ♪
which is going to *massively* increase the number of neutrinos ♪ ♪
that Fermilab will be able to send to the DUNE experiments. ♪ (𝘴𝘸𝘦𝘭𝘭𝘴) ♪
Don, I think you need to tell us a bit about how DUNE is actually going to work. ♪ (𝘵𝘦𝘤𝘩𝘺 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘣𝘶𝘪𝘭𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘷𝘦𝘳) ♪
DR. DON: Sure. Well, what we’re gonna do is we’re going to send a super intense beam of neutrinos through the Earth ♪ ♪
1,300 kilometers from Chicago to South Dakota, where ♪ ♪
a huge detector weighing 70,000 tons ♪ ♪
consisting of liquid argon and located a mile underground ♪ ♪
will catch the beam and tell us what happened to the neutrinos as they passed from here to there. ♪ (𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘦 𝘣𝘢𝘤𝘬 𝘪𝘯 𝘧𝘰𝘤𝘶𝘴) ♪
MATT: Which will, hopefully, tell us something fundamental about the difference between matter and antimatter ♪ ♪
Which, also hopefully, will tell us why we live in a universe made of matter in the first place. ♪ ♪
MATT (voiceover): Our best understanding of particle physics tells us that matter and antimatter ♪ (𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘦𝘯𝘥 𝘰𝘧 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦𝘴) ♪
should have been created in equal quantities in the early universe, ♪ (𝘩𝘪𝘨𝘩 𝘦𝘯𝘥 𝘰𝘧 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘦 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵, 𝘵𝘢𝘱𝘱𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮) ♪
and so, should have perfectly annihilated each other ♪ ♪
leaving a universe of only photons. ♪ ♪
The fact that we see a universe full of matter ♪ (𝘷𝘰𝘭𝘶𝘮𝘦 𝘣𝘶𝘪𝘭𝘥𝘴, 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘱𝘭𝘶𝘤𝘬 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦𝘴 𝘰𝘷𝘦𝘳) ♪
means there must have been a tiny imbalance between matter and antimatter, ♪ (𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵 𝘩𝘰𝘳𝘯 𝘣𝘶𝘳𝘴𝘵, 𝘩𝘪𝘨𝘩 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩) ♪
enough to leave a bit of leftover stuff to produce the stars and galaxies and ♪ ♪
particle physicists that we see around us today. ♪ (𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘴𝘺𝘯𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘦 𝘳𝘦𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘯𝘴) ♪
In order for that to happen, ♪ ♪
there must have been a tiny asymmetry ♪ (𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘴𝘸𝘦𝘭𝘭) ♪
between the behavior of matter and antimatter. ♪ (𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘴𝘸𝘦𝘭𝘭) ♪
The full details of that are speculative, ♪ ♪
but one possibility is ‘leptogenesis’: ♪ ♪
a hypothetical physical process that may have occurred right after the Big Bang. ♪ (𝘴𝘭𝘰𝘸𝘭𝘺 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘶𝘵) ♪
a hypothetical physical process that may have occurred right after the Big Bang. And, Don has already made an excellent video on the subject, which you should check out. ♪ (𝘥𝘪𝘧𝘧𝘶𝘴𝘦 𝘦𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘭 𝘵𝘰𝘯𝘦𝘴 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘪𝘯)♪
And, Don has already made an excellent video on the subject, which you should check out. ♪ (𝘥𝘪𝘧𝘧𝘶𝘴𝘦 𝘦𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘭 𝘵𝘰𝘯𝘦𝘴 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘪𝘯)♪
DR. DON: But, the short version is that, according to leptogenesis, ♪ ♪
DR. DON: But, the short version is that, according to leptogenesis, ♪ ♪
DR. DON (voiceover):
neutrinos in the early universe may have decayed into other matter particles, ♪ ♪
with matter neutrinos producing antimatter particles, ♪ ♪
and antimatter neutrinos – or anti-neutrinos – producing matter particles. ♪ ♪
DR. DON: If there *was* an imbalance in the number of neutrinos versus anti neutrinos, ♪ ♪
that could lead to an ultimate imbalance in the amount of matter versus antimatter. ♪ ♪
DR. DON (voiceover): And, that same initial imbalance should also be reflected in the way neutrinos oscillate: ♪ ♪
with anti-neutrinos oscillating between the three different types more slowly than matter neutrinos. ♪ ♪
DR. DON: And *that* is what the DUNE experiment seeks to detect. ♪ ♪
MATT: Well, it sounds like you all have a *lot* of work ahead of you, so we’re gonna get out of your hair, ♪ ♪
but thank you so much for taking us literally behind the scenes. ♪ ♪
DR. DON: You know, you’re welcome to come anytime, ♪ ♪
we love Space Time. ♪ ♪
MATT: And we love Fermilab. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
And that is how you study the most elusive particle in the universe. ♪ ♪
Check out the Fermilab channel for a much deeper dive into neutrinos and lots lots more. ♪ ♪
It’s honestly one of my go-to resources when I’m researching ♪ ♪
a new episode of a Space Time. ♪ (𝘦𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘭𝘴 𝘴𝘭𝘰𝘸𝘭𝘺 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘶𝘵) ♪ ♪ (𝘦𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘭 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘭𝘴 𝘴𝘭𝘰𝘸𝘭𝘺 𝘧𝘢𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘶𝘵) ♪
(title)
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Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. So, due to the uncertainty principal, we cannot know the exact position and velocity of a particle. But what if you measure the position of a particle at one point (thus changing its velocity) then measure it again a second later (or some other obscure time frame). Could you then divide the distance by the time to get its speed? And once you know the speed gained by measuring its position, can it be applied to other particles as well?

  2. Could the Higgs field be what’s causing gravity? I mean, the Higgs field gives particles there mass, so because gravity is an intrinsic property of anything with mass, could it be possible that Higgs field causes mass and gravity?

  3. Watch these guys hands the whole time they talk …..the Masonic all seeing eye of Lucifer handsign is thrown up more times than Ive had baked dinners …or maybe they both have a bad case of Tourette's …

  4. They shooting it to the wrong place…they should shoot one ina blak chole and they would 100% see it and its interaction with antimatter….just dont choose any blak chole inour galaxy or any adjacent ones where any gamma ray could kill our descendants and our solar system

  5. Its here yeah really fascinating particles in terms of potentially being able to explain beyond the standard model. A weird though I had watching this is about what if you sent a beam of neutrinos through the densest form of matter we know that isn't a black hole? I mean it isn't practically feasible since thankfully there are no nearby neutron stars but perhaps if we can avoid destroying ourselves and explore other star systems this could actually be tested millions to billions of years in the future.

    Now every time I hear the light years of lead to block 50% of neutrinos I can't help but think about how attempting to actually do that thought experiment by aligning 5 light years worth of lead would be exceptionally hard to do as it's tendency would be to gravitationally collapse into a black hole capable of blocking 100% of Neutrinos passing through it rather than just half. Hmm active support (mega)structure maybe? 😛

  6. nothing happened because if all the stuff in the universe was at a center point it would just be a giant blackhole. the big bang idea is dumb

  7. If one is in South Dakota at the PIP-II receiving lab.. can they say they were "Neutralized" by the beam of Neutrinos?

  8. Sabine says this a crock perpetuated by those who seek funding. This will not prove anything despite the billions spent. Something about any findings…can't be proven.
    Ask her. She says it better than me.

  9. I don't think we can say the universe is made of matter when dark matter makes up the majority of it, and we have no idea what that is.

  10. Wish the dialouge between the two wasn't so scripted, would have been much more cool to hear them speak authentically

  11. About neutrinos… It's a well known saying that you need a light year of lead to stop half of all neutrinos. When I heard that I was like "Must be not enough lead in the Universe for that", but than I realized it depends on the cross section area. So, if we actually take all the lead in the universe, make it solid and into a light year long cylinder (probably to study neutrinos), how much cross sectional area would that cylinder/wall have?

  12. Quite singular… I was following Fermilab well before Space Time appeared in my universe.
    It's nice to enjoy both excellent shows. Thank yous,

  13. How do they tell if a neutrino they detect is a neutrino that was generated by their experiment rather than random ones from space?

  14. OH MY GOD(NESS)! Dr Lincoln on PBS Spacetime, at last!
    After 5+ years of following FermiLab and PBS Space Time, my wish has been granted! <3
    Now, Pr O'Dowd, you HAVE TO do a collaboration with Nick Lucid from the Science Asylum.

  15. I think the big bang is a black hole seen from the inside, so the difference between matter and antimatter is simply the observation of what fell into our black hole.
    Also, why did your accent change on this channel?

  16. How do we know that there isn't a lot of anti-matter in the universe that is in an area where it isn't interacting with matter, or even beyond the observable universe?

  17. Why are we spending all this money on stuff like this when the Bible tells us why we're here… and the 7 days it took🤔

  18. Couldn't you use protons and electrons to trap the neutrinos in between them. Kinda like how the Sun and Moon traps the Earth between them

  19. How do electromagnetic waves bounce from the quantum perspective considering the quantum entaglement effect and the pinpoint of the observer?

  20. I'm curious what city/town is on the receiving end of the rest of the 10 trillion neutrinos per second…
    (I can see the lawsuits now)

  21. So, are you ever going to visit the Super Kamiokande detector? Maybe talk about neutrino astronomy, and all the various ways that neutrinos for Super K are produced, and maybe go a bit in depth on how it works as well?

  22. When I call myself a Ghost type chasing Dragons, they call me a madman.
    When they wanna chase vaguely existing leptons halfway across the planet, they get a SpaceTime vid.

  23. Quasiparticles can and do exist in 2D crystals. Massless fermions, virtual particles, and quantum interactions have been witnessed interacting with the real world through such nanomaterials.

  24. 7:50 "… the fact that we see a universe full of matter…" The implication is that we see a universe with no antimatter. There is your fallacy. We don't see a universe with no antimatter. We only see the observable universe with no antimatter. If the universe is infinite then we only see 0.00% of the universe. You're extrapolating from 0% to the whole universe. Watch my video Where Is All The Antimatter.

  25. I have three questions about how the cosmic expansion from the Big Bang
    The first question is if the quarks produces gluons
    Do gluons produce particles too?
    The second question is the vibrations of quarks, electrons and gluons
    Are these particles producing a new area of ​​the universe?
    The third question is about cosmic expansion
    Are these additional spaces caused by the formation of new molecules?
    These were three questions about the theory of cosmic expansion (the Big Bang).
    We hope you send these three questions to experimental physicists
    We want answers that depend on physical experiments in laboratories

  26. Matt and Don in the same video?
    So that's what a neutrino collision looks like at macro scale.
    Someone needs to build something so we can see more interactions 😉

  27. I have a question no one could ever explain to me: If dark matter doesn't interact with anything but gravity, why doesn't it become a black hole? What force would prevent dark matter particles from clustering up on each other until infinity? In normal matter, the counter part to gravitation pressure that pulls everything together is temperature creating an inner pressure. That way stars don't become a black hole but stay a physical body. For that, they need electromagnetic interaction and later in neutron stars quantum effects (Pauli principle) to prevent collapsing into a black hole. Only when their gravity becomes stronger than these forces, a black hole can form.

    Now what force would that be in a dark matter cloud what keeps it from collapsing if they don't interact with anything but gravity? They should become a huge black hole, not?

  28. Movement is relative to another object in Space. How does the universe know you are rotating and it is not to give you a similar effect of gravity to push you to the edge of your ship. What is special about rotational movements in Space Time?

  29. Could you build a second Fermilab next to your existing one as I want to see the double slot experiment using Neutrinos… Thanks in advance 🙂

  30. I do not understand much since i never got the chance to study physics properly but I follow every content you make and little by little i learn something , thank you for the great video

  31. Why are muon and tau separate particles if they're exactly like electron just heavier and decay into an electron in a short time? Can't they be considered special excited states of an electron? If neutrinos can turn into other flavors, can't electrons do the same thing?

    Also haven't we learned by now not to name things "Icarus"?

  32. Please like this comment so PBS space time would fix the graphics.

    There's a mistake in graphics 3:21 – 3:30 . The pion decayed to a muon neutrino and the wrong symbol was used for the moun (Nu was used instead). Furthermore, the graphics show that the muon neutrinos were stopped in the barrier, not the muons (which have the Nu symbol). The audio was correct, however.

  33. Hey had a question about multiverse theory.. If there are multiple possibilities or multiple universes, would there be a universe that has interacted with another one? In face, what is the framework that guides the development of these universes? Since, there are possibilities that could conflict with each other such as a universe destroying a nearby universe or the random appearance of energy due to this interaction? Not sure if this makes sense.. haha

  34. Come to India and tell this to these fucking fake politicians and medias. We are waiting for a single Neutrino observatory for almost 25 years😬😡

  35. wow allot of money spent on proving a guess… we have not prove that antimatter exist. how we know the dinosaurs died from asteroid… because they told us so. lets not talk about the bigbang.

  36. I watch a lot of youtube, but i can honestly say, this by far has been my favorite chancel since i found it six months ago or so.Thank you for helping me expand my mind by making such amazing content. i look forward to more amazing videos to come.

  37. What if i opened an interdimensional rift in space time and could travel from earth into the universe of a game and physically pull things through that rift with me?

  38. Can you do an episode on the infamous USAF area 51, 52 or 6 tr3b Astra that seemingly defies what we are taught as being "possible." It's the one caught in the "Phoenix lights" and many many times all over the world and in space. I'm not asking for verification of it exists or not because I know it does. What I want to know is the science behind it's use of light generated from it's core center that increases size and intensity, enveloping the craft, then "vanishing" at such high speeds it's impossible to see or hear the takeoff from it's floating point in the sky?

  39. So a neutrino communication channel is actually being built. Such a channel would have the lowest delay because the light does not traverse through earth, whereas a possible light path along the surface is longer. Minimum-delay channels, such as laser-beam air links, are nowadays used for "high-frequency trading". I wonder how much time will pass until the traders start employing neutrino communications.

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