Mexico has got a lot going on in its history from ancient civilizations building temples to the Sun and sowing panic about the year 2012 – a great Empire with a city in the middle of a lake into habit of plucking people off of pyramids – it’s less than willing participation in new world globalization and its development into an independent nation state to put that into proper historical terminology that’s a lot of stuff going on so to organize this and find out how Mexico became Mexico let’s do some history this video is brought to you by Nord VPN more on that later while civilization along this stretch of lands dates back thousands of years to players like the Olmecs the South howtechs and the Maya our story begins in the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Toltec Empire in 1122 ad in the absence of any one dominant power a series of small city-states carved out their own little corners of influence 200 years later the michiga tribe settled right in the middle of Lake Texcoco to fulfill a prophecy they were told that the apparition of an eagle perched atop a cactus and eating a snake would mark their new home so upon seeing it rather than look a gift eagle in the beak they camped out right in the lake and began building the city of Tenochtitlan the Mexica then allied with two of their neighbors to form the Aztec empire through a combination of military skills some fetching outfits and a trusty obsidian macaque wheedled the Aztec empire grew to dominate the land from coast to coast meanwhile the capital of Tenochtitlan became a fabulously huge and beautiful city of canals palaces markets aqueducts and oil donde esta el cuñado and then the conquistadors showed up some 30 years after Columbus accidentally wandered into the Caribbean Spain was in full-on empire mode though there wasn’t a great deal to be found in the Antilles some Scouts brought word that there was a shiny big civilization to sack on the mainland to the west so one enterprising gentleman by the name of Hernan Cortes defied the Crown’s orders and hopped over to the mainland in 1519 with some 500 fellow conquistadors the absolute greediest and nastiest brutes that Renaissance Spain had to offer while the numbers game wasn’t strictly in spain’s favor they had steel swords and armor that made the obsidian blades and wooden shields look like paper mache now the Aztecs being a conquering Empire had made a series of enemies like their neighbors that flocks Collins who were all too thrilled to offer thousands of warriors for Cortez’s army but perhaps the most deadly ally that Spain had in this fight was smallpox which among other European diseases killed anywhere from half to 90% of the native Mesoamerican population after Cortes kidnapped King Moctezuma dodged an arrest attempt from his commanding officer and ordered his ships to be burns to ensure there was no possibility of retreat the conquistadors captured Tenochtitlan in 1521 after several battles and a long siege and fully eradicated the Aztec empire and now with all that icky Pagan nonsense out of the way Spain’s got itself a brand new Spain step one was to stop Cortes from acting like a de facto monarch because why would he exercise restraint now back in Spain King Charles v created a series of advisory boards to attempt to rein in Cortes but when that didn’t work Charles just stripped him of his powers and established the Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1535 step two was building up a new Capitol on the site of Tenochtitlan which was newly renamed after the old tenants of the Aztec mesh eeka tribe which is where we get the name Mexico step three was governing the place in addition to the power of the monarchy Spain formalized their superiority over the native peoples through Acosta system which classified everyone from Iberian born Spaniards down to indigenous peoples with Mexican born criollos and mixed-blood mestizos in the middle Step three and a half was adopting an old Aztec law mandating public labor and transforming that into the Spanish encomienda system which wasn’t technically slavery but it was pretty dang close step 4 was Christianity in New Spain the Catholic Church had land power and an undying determination to convert everybody polytheism is usually pretty open to new gods so Jesus in was fairly easy but getting Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca and the rest of the gang out was far trickier so missionaries got a bit torch happy and burned countless texts a few did attempts to limit the harmful effects of colonization but they got pushback for suggesting that non Spaniards had gasped basic human dignity and others used Aztec human sacrifice as justification that hippity-hoppity your soul is my property so it was a rocky process the Aztec heartland quickly became the new urban core with spots like Mexico City in Guadalajara and land in Veracruz and Acapulco on the coasts but cities were soon going up all over New Spain though as this is colonialism we’re talking about the real aim was to bring resources and wealth back to Iberia and that came in the form of food and silver while some Spaniards were still hunting for El Dorado and surprising nobody but themselves failing horribly silver became the dominant metal export and the old world soon got to taste cocoa chiles corn and tomatoes which boosted and also stabilized the European food supply the problem for Spain was that they didn’t really have all that greta grasp on macroeconomics so they overinflated their economy and squandered their money on losing wars spanish powers swiftly dimmed and france and britain soon not – flexing their might in the new world and at the end of the 18th century mexico fought alongside america during their war of independence and the Mexican soldiers who were there took some notes to bring home at the turn of the 1800s Mexicans were fed up with the Casta system in its favoritism of Spanish born peninsulares and with the success of recent American and Haitian revolutions Mexico was willing to give it a go at themselves on September 16th of 1810 a Carrillo priest named Miguel Hidalgo took advantage of Spain’s current king lessness to give the cry of Dolores and begin the war of independence which he lost but his idea lasted the revolution went on in fits and starts for the next decade with some constitutions but not a lot of Independence the problem was that nobody could agree on what they wanted out of the revolution independence or a public equal rights all three it depends on who you asked but the turning point came in 1820 when Spain now regained after the Napoleonic nonsense got a newly liberalized constitution the higher classes feared that an exportation of those liberal ideas to Mexico would mean the end of their extremely cushy socio-economic status so in general in the spanish army by the name of augustine they each would be they flipped and teamed up with revolutionary leader b10 take it out the hash of some compromises for a new independent government these three guarantees of monarchy egalitarianism and Catholicism became the goals of the revolution and when their combined armies marched on Mexico City they had no trouble eating the Spanish loyalists right on out of there and forming an independent Mexican Empire with each would-be day as Emperor so now Mexico’s got independence but what about that carefully crafted political compromise that kind of held this whole operation together it went pretty quickly out the window nobody seems to be happy with the new government and most aristocrats carried on not giving rights to the mestizos and natives et Orbi de was ousted and later executed and Central America seceded from the Mexican Empire not a great start as time went on the economy was stagnant because no government was strong or consistent enough to create an enforced rule so the local economy shriveled as corruption soared the biggest figure to emerge in the half century after Mexican Independence was Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana a former general turned politician who served as president and/or dictator for most of the next two decades watch out this becomes a trend Santana had the galaxy brain idea of encouraging American immigrants to settle in the state of Coahuila Tejas to shield from raids by the Comanche nation and also boost the northern economy this failed spectacularly as he essentially imported an entire population that was bound to agitate for more rights when they did Santa Ana effectively told them to shove it and then was surprised when they immediately revolted things got real at the siege of the Alamo but despite early Mexican victories the Texan revolutionaries won the decisive Battle of San Jacinto in 18 minutes and personally captured Santa Ana to add insult to injury they let him go but his problems got worse when Texas joined the ever-growing United States they in Mexico had a mix-up over some soldiers killed on disputed land which led to a second and even more disastrous war for Santa Ana the u.s. invaded along the Pacific coast of California and the eastern Gulf Coast and routed Santa Ana to capture Mexico City and forces surrender the resulting Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo saw Mexico cede all of its northern territories to the United States from Colorado all the way to California this was rough as Mexico now languished in military failure bad governance and a deflated economy for another decade before Santa Ana was ousted for good in 1855 two years later a new constitution took power from the church to help prop the lower classes but this didn’t sit super well with the church elite so a civil war between conservative Catholics and Liberal Democrats swiftly broke out yay in the course of the four-year war both sides borrowed huge sums of money from Spain France and England to finance their militaries and when the Liberals won the war in 1861 Europe came to collect for both tabs which goes to show that war profiteering is great because no matter who wins you still get rich easy obviously Mexico couldn’t pay all of this so they defaulted on their debts in response the French Emperor Napoleon the third decided to take matters into his own empire and invaded Mexico to place a Habsburg puppet on the throne France landed on the Bay of Campeche and pushed towards Mexico City but was spectacularly halted in its tracks by the Mexican army at the Battle of Puebla this is what Cinco DeMayo is about it’s not so much an Independence Day as an anti recal oniel ISM Day which is different but has the same core energy to it unfortunately the war wasn’t over and France regrouped to capture Mexico City and install their puppet Maximilian on the throne three years later the Mexican Republican Army recaptured the north and America shot some nasty eyes at France so they decided better off not fighting a war on two fronts and then they withdrew the New Mexican government said about some much-needed reforms because oh man Mexico has been having a rough century here the next four decades saw the country’s secularized reform the central government to be stronger and more efficient build infrastructure and modernize the army that last one is relevant because the 1880s through 1910s had another military strong man turned politician who rigged elections and manipulated the army to stay in power after winning and especially controversial election in 1910 widespread revolts forced him to flee but this revolution ran into trouble when the leaders failed to agree on new government so Mexico descended into a decade of open rebellion their evolutionary’s were defeated and a couple more military strongmen held the country but things started looking up in the second half of the century as Mexico’s involvement in World War two kick-started decades of economic progress that continues to this day I wasn’t lying when I said that Mexican history is busy but it’s also extremely complex and the Mexican identity is one of the most fascinating and trickiest artifacts of this history for instance in the 80s there was a new statue of Cortes his now-wife Moline s’en and their mestizo san martín which intended celebrate the convergence of cultures but instead it was meant by fear student protests who saw Cortes as a predator and Mallinson or La Malinche as a traitor to her Gnawa people the debate over the statue is a very recent microcosm of the beautiful harmonies and the stark contrasts that make up Mexico’s history a story that’s deep inspiring and sometimes dismaying but above all else very much alive as we’ve seen it can be hard to protect your empire from conquistadors but it’s easy to protect your online data from hackers and thieves with today’s sponsor Nord VPN the digital world is vast and speedy but it can also be extremely shady with a virtual private network or VPN you can keep your data safe from hackers and spyware and also hop around to different corners of the net while the conquistadors took entire months to cross the Atlantic like a bunch of slow losers Nord VPNs military-grade security and servers in over 60 countries let you hop from Spain to Mexico with a click and Nord VPN is offering you 70% off a three year plan and a free bonus month if you go to Nord bpn calm sloshed overly sarcastic and use code overly sarcastic whether you’re punching a hole in online government censorship or hopping across the Atlantic to see what’s going on with Netflix and espanol it’s important to be secure and Nord VPN is consistently among the highest rated VPNs around whenever I’m browsing on public Wi-Fi in a library or cafe I always feel safe with Nord VPN again head over to Nord VPN calm slash over loose sarcastic and use the code overly sarcastic to get 70% off three years of secure internet and one bonus month free thanks so much for watching this one was a big research undertaking for me but I loved digging into the history of my national neighbor one thing I learned while making this is that there’s a sea shanty all about general Santa Anna and so it’s not strictly accurate to Santa Anna’s actual history it is a banger of a track so I linked it down in the description give it a listen and I’ll see you in the next one

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. Hey guys, I hope you guys are doing a Q&A for 1 million subscribers. I have just one question though, I am have been thinking about college recently and I want to know if there is any point in a philosophy major. Can I reasonably think that I might get a job that's not teaching, or will I end up broke.

  2. Giorgio Tsoukalos—-> ✋ M E X I C A N S ✋

    Also mexico still isnt free. The politicians are corrupted as hell and they dont really care to help their people, instead corporations sell almost all the good products they make to 1st world countries for pennies on the dime (thas why exported fruits and vegies are cheap as hell here in the US) and the Mexican people get slopy seconds.

  3. Huh. All this time I never knew Cortes was basically doing his thing "illegally". I just knew "oh, this happened. He wrecked an entire civilization for greed and mother-Spain".

    Turns out it was far more about the greed.

    Puts a bit more context (for me) into a scene in a certain inaccurate animated movie about a pair of con artists when said characters are dropped in front of Cortes. Of course he wouldn't turn back to have them locked up or just plain execute them without the crown's consent. He's already doing something without the crown's consent.

  4. As a Mexican this video is a good resume of México History
    you cut a LOT info. but is reasonable, you will need four videos of México´s story

  5. Great video! Quallyty is really increasing lately keep up the good work. Also could you please make a video about Bulgaria? If you do, i can help with information, fun facts and jokes. (here's one fun fact: the population of bulgaria before ottoman rule was 3 milion but due to constant genosides the then most populated region of bulgaria, dobrujea, got so depopulated that the romanians and turks managed to colonise it and even after 500 years of ottman rule + 200 years of free bulgaria the region still hasn't reached the same populatioon of bulgarians)


    Moses austin was the one who started buying land to sell to what the Mexicans called Anglos in Tejas. Later, Santa Anna cracked down on Anglo culture in the region and illegal immigration from the US.

    Its San Jacinto. You pronounce the j… (like I'm sure it's a Spanish word, but the battle is named san ja-sin-toe) perhaps it would be pronounced with a soft j had texas lost.

    #Viva Tejas.
    #Tejas libre.
    #Come and take it
    #remember the Alamo
    #remember goliad
    #propane and propane accessories

  7. "Mexican troops faught in the American Revolution…", not true. Besides the annoying fact that Mexico didn't exist as a nation yet, the army Spain used to take Florida from Britain, commanded by General Galvez, was formed in Louisiana! (And comprised mostly of formerly French/ Louisiana Creole and Cajun troops. After the French and Indian War, France gave possession of the Louisiana territory to Spain in 1765.)

  8. Man, the native Americans were just fucking about on their own continent for thousands of years until some white boy wanted a yellow shiny thing

  9. The Spanish weren't evil like you portray them. The issue is much more nuanced than that. You obviously don't care because you're trying to water everything down so it can be digested by anyone, but still your information has been simplified so as to be inaccurate.

  10. Lol, is that how they teach the US Intervention in the US? Texas (which would go on to become a major slaver state) was asking for representation?
    Leave it to the US to reinterpret history.

    Shame you also ommited that the European debt wasnt conracted by the Mexican government, but by a rebel conservative group, which was THEN imposed on subsequent Mexican governments.

  11. i really like Historical Fiction novels, one of my favorite series related to mexico, is the Aztec series by Gary Jennings… its pretty awesome, a very good read.

  12. As a Mexican I can confirm that there was nothing worse about Mexican History classes than the Mexican Revolution.
    Nothing worse than learning about a war where everyone keeps backstabbing each other every hour for too many fucking reasons, like seriously.

  13. When I was younger, I used to go the park where the statue of Hernán Cortés was placed, and I just remembered how much I loved climbing that thing. Usually there were a lot of cats under/behind it, too. I also remembered that I didn't even knew that was supposed to be Cortés, I just liked riding the lion (I was like 6)

    Also also, my favorite historical character is Morelos, and l love the fact that, Mexico was to be a free country, no slavery, from the very beginning.

    Also also also, since I was a kid I loved that Guillermo Prieto saved Benito Juárez once just with his iconic ( for me at least) "Alto, los valientes no asesinan!"

    Also also also also, I sooo agree with all those other comments; history was the worst. Because since the very beginning it was killing for the power (we often joked about it in my class) the people in the power changed a lot, and that meant MORE names to memorize.

  14. the people actually liked Iturbide but it was the elites in the Govt. that fear he would become to powerful and killed him when he came back.

  15. Student protests, eh? Emphasis on "student".

    It's always dumbass children throwing tables over shit that blue-haired lesbian art-teachers tell them, isn't it?

  16. Hola mi amigos from the southern border! Native Texan here! Love you guys and y'all's history! So all I'm ganna say is this, "Iiiiiiiiiiiiaaaaaaaayaaayaaayaaaaahaaahehee! VIVA MEXICO!!!" (That was a grito, FYI)

  17. Pagan countries: exist

    Spanish Conquistador, Christianity and Small pox: You got my attention

    Few decades later:

    All historian: Why is that when indigenous die, it is alway you three.

  18. Mexica is pronounced Meh-shee-ka.

    Texcoco is pronounced Tesh-ko-ko.

    Prophecy is wrong.

    Tlaxcalan is suppose to be tlaxcalteca.

  19. A couple of comments on the history!
    1. Man you skipped over 3000 years of history previous to the toltecas, but I don't judge you that stuff is dense
    2. Hernán Cortés was (although feisty with the spanish crown) actually not a brute against the native people and not as assholey as you paint him
    3. The war of independence actually began with Hidalgo fighting for the return of the king of Spain, but the goal changed quickly as more and more mestizos and indígenas joined the fight. And the fight was never lost, it was continuous between 1810 and 1821, changing generals constantly.
    4. I wouldn't call the war of independence a revolution, because (after all) we did have a mexican revolution a whole century afterwards.
    5. Santa Anna (who actually had no mustache, but instead majestic sideburns) did import the american population to Texas, but the rights that Santa Anna had denied was the right of slave ownership, which was abolished (at least legally) in México since the start of the fight for independence. This is honestly the thing that bothers me the most because americans talking about this fight seem to forget that their country was fighting in pro of slavery and the mexican government was fighting for control of the region and against slavery.
    6. Cinco de Mayo does not have the same energy as the day of independence. 5 de mayo became a bigger deal in the US than it is in México. Its spirit is more of an inspiring kind of deal where "we fought against a modern european army and won " was the main point of celebration.

    7. I think the last century of Mexican history has been as interesting (or even more so) than the first half of it, and so many more topics could've been touched upon, like the cristiada, maximato, the pri dictatorship, the great economic crisis of the 80's with president Jolopo, the Tlatelolco massacre, and so on and so forth…

  20. Interesting. My mother’s side of the family comes from New Mexico and has lived there since it was part of the Empire, so this is part of my family’s history until the US took us over, which we were never mad about because life got so much better under US rule.

  21. 0:50 *A propheCy
    Prophesy is a verb meaning "to say that (a specified thing) will happen in the future".

    *insert an image of a skeleton with a caption above it, saying "Still waiting for the English native speakers to finally start apologizing for THEIR English".*

  22. Qué Viva Mexico. Also fun fact

    when the Spaniards asked what rivers and places are called, the Mayas answered “Yucatán” which means “I’m not from here” or “I don’t know what ur saying.”

    That’s why there’s like 100 Yucatán rivers/towns/states…

  23. Fun Facts:
    1) Mexico's National language is Mexican
    2) While you knew that the previous question was wrong you didn't notice that I skipped question two and this is actually question three
    3) You just looked back to confirm that question two really wasn't there but you now realized that I tricked you
    5) I skipped question three
    4) You were going to call me out for skipping question four, but only now realized that question four is this question right here
    5) All Mexicans speak Mexican
    6) I just went over question five again
    7) Question five is wrong and the other question five is wrong
    8) This is technically question nine, then
    10) You noticed that I skipped question "9)" and are thinking that me skipping that question is relevant
    11) There is something at the end of this message.
    12) It's a period

  24. Well, about that tendency of making european-born spanish the leaders of New Spain was to avoid the heavy nepotism of criollos bloodlines all over the continent. Yes, the spanish did bring that "custom" with them, but it was easier to control that bad habit in Europe that at the other side of the pond and the income from these colonies were really diminished by it.

  25. Are you sure European disease killed up to 90% of native Mesoamericans? That seems awfully convenient… I always thought is was around 60%?

  26. for those interested, Miguel Leon-Portilla's "The Broken Spears" provides an in-depth account of the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs and says that, apparently, the Aztecs were actually WINNING until an omen prompted their last ruler, Cuauhtemoc, to surrender to Cortez and that was that

  27. Makes you wonder what could have been. I wonder if Mexico had just went with liberalism, would it have living standards as high as America's.

  28. Nothing on Pancho Villa? Thats fine I'm pretty sure he was a dick, and he was pretty controversial in my family. My Great Aunt Emma tried to kick his ass(not surprising she was also in the Zoot suit riots) and one of my Uncles hid pancho in his store from rioters.

  29. 4:12 This is NOT colonialism that are we talking about. This is imperialism, come on, you call yourself historian and don't ken the difference.

  30. I hope you eventually cover Israel. There's so much history that isn't Jews vs Muslims, and the whole area is filled with buildings from almost every big name empire.

  31. Cortes:Do you guys know who is Jesus Christ?
    Cortes: There seems to be like there's no sign of intelligent life anywhere.

  32. Mexico history: they have to migrate to America because their country is god awful. They don’t have history or a culture.

  33. I am now highly curious what Blue would do for a 10 minute history of the USA.
    I don't know if I would like it or not, but I am highly curious. 🙂

  34. No mention of the ridiculous amount of sacrifices by the Aztec’s on Spanish arrival depicted In image and with corpse evidence, for shame blue, for shame.

  35. Could you show the source for Mexicans fighting in the American war of independence because I can’t find any

  36. Dude. Why don't you don't talk about the PRI? For 70 years Mexico was a one-party state but instead you talk about a statue. Why do you just brush away the 20th century?

  37. Believe me no one is proud to be a Mexican. There country is so terrible that they have to migrate to the United States 🇺🇸 for jobs.

  38. You should place your ad in the middle of the video, instead of the end. At the end people would just leave. In the middle, they have to watch it. Most people dont like it but I think we should all support those people who make these amazing videos possible. Especially considering YouTube stupid policy of demonetizing history videos. You doing a great job by the way

  39. México in civil war since it's foundation

    Then Revolution time Vs Porfirio Díaz then backstab to Madero then kill the traitor Victoriano Huerta some of this time Emiliano Zapata fight for rights and land and Pancho Villa went hippity hoppity this is now my property on some random US cities then it's time to kill Zapata and Villa and others that opposed to Carranza and well then a politic party that rule several yeas then the war of the church Vs the state and now the Guerra contra el Narco

    List of wars involving Mexico

  40. This was awesome, and now it's gotten me thinking about your videos about Spain and Portugal. Do you think you could do an ancient history video about their predecessors, the Iberians?

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