this is the last domino after spending
four days setting them up now this this video is going to be a metaphor for time
a metaphor for the entire history of the universe using one Domino for every
million years now on that time scale we need a lot of Domino’s specifically we
need thirteen thousand seven hundred and ninety nine Domino’s so to do this I
needed to do it in a warehouse that’s how much space this takes up because the
universe is very very old now this video isn’t just about that number it’s about
the story of the universe because as they fall I’m going to try to run
alongside them and narrate everything that has ever happened
wish me luck okay ear protection it starts with a big time starts to tick hydrogen and helium
now exists they clump together to form the very first stars that burn out
quickly and explode those stars send their enriched guts out into the
universe and those gases form new stars because gravity continues to clump
gasses into stars and it groups stars to form the first galaxies there are at
least a hundred billion galaxies one of those is the Milky Way which we will
eventually live in the Greeks will name it that because it looks to them like
milk is spilling across the sky that’s 1 billion years in our timeline right now
the Milky Way has started to form into a spinning disk now this balloon will
represent the galaxies now see thrown perfectly straight upwards it keeps its
shape but if I spin it and as I throw it it gets pulled out words and that is
centrifugal force and that’s the same force that causes our galaxy to be a
disc not a sphere the force that holds it together is gravity which I can also
demonstrate at our first domino the temperature of the universe was
trillions and trillions of degrees and by now it’s already -173 degrees
Celsius this is the peak birth rate of stars but stars are also dying and in
fact there is one supernova every 50 years so in our timeline that’s like one
supernova per spark from our sparkler these explosions dump out heavier atoms
into the universe it’s the enriched guts of stars that
filled the universe with stuff dead stars can go on to become super dense
things like black holes and neutron stars and if they aren’t big enough to
explode then they can become things like white dwarf stars
which are about the size of the earth and take forever – well, very long – to burn
out. at this time in a distant solar system two stars are in a dance of death
now either one collided with the other or one started feeding off of the other
but either way one that we will eventually name Wilson goes supernova
and it will take the rest of our timeline (another 10 billion years) for
that light to travel all the way to the Hubble Space Telescope as this image.
Light travels super fast but the galaxies are big and far apart. We’re
about 90 metres into our timeline, or about a third of the way through the
universe scientists know is 13,799 million years old give or take only 21
million years now scientists are good at what they’re do because that’s very accurate
it’s literally just a step one step in our timeline that’s a pretty good
estimate. We still know relatively little about this whole part of the universe’s
history, but for all we know there could be life evolving in distant galaxies and
it could be going extinct and we just don’t know about it yet. Space continues
to expand galaxies are drifting further apart and even our galaxy is expanding.
Now at this point the rate at which stars are forming in the Milky Way
starts to slow down but don’t worry there’s still about seven
stars born every single year so the Milky Way has a long life ahead of it.
Since we last checked in with the background of the universe space has
gotten a lot bigger and it’s cooled by another 95 degrees Celsius now
we’re almost halfway to present-day and in all that time the universe will only
cool by another two degrees as entropy increases space will continue to get
colder and colder but eventually the entire universe will be
too cold to support life though to make that timeline there aren’t enough
dominoes in the entire universe so don’t worry. we’re officially past the
halfway mark to modern day now the Milky Way galaxy is rotating so if
this is our Milky Way galaxy it’s rotating which means that the outside is
traveling very quickly and on our timescale even though the universe is
sorry the galaxy is spinning at hundreds of kilometers a second it takes 240
million years to rotate so that’s something like that speed the universe
the galaxies it’s very big something happens around this time that
we just can’t explain you see the universe should be slowing down its rate
of expansion but for some reason things are actually accelerating it’s not
slowing down it’s accelerating and we don’t know what force is causing that to
happen but for now we call it “dark energy” and also most of the universe is
made of this stuff that we can’t identify and we know very little about
so now we’re calling that “dark matter” now we’re getting to a very exciting
point. Somewhere in the outer edges of the
galaxy of the Milky Way there is a spinning cloud of dust called a protoplanetary disc and right now a supernova triggers that to
collapse and it forms our Sun our gas giants and our rocky world’s a proto
planet smashes into the earth and creates the moon Mars Venus and Earth
are all water worlds they’re wet! there’s also millions of asteroids many
are bombarding through the universe, many between Mars and Jupiter but also
many are colliding with the earth and the moon. There’s 20,000 craters
created at this time that are wider than Manhattan they’re big. And also the moon
has an active core and right now they’re actually
volcanoes on it and it’s so close to the earth that the tides are over 300 meters
high. Life evolves in the sea it’s just simple single cells but they begin to
photosynthesize even though they aren’t making oxygen just yet. Venus and Mars
have dried up becoming very hot and extremely cold respectively
you see Venus had a runaway greenhouse gas effect and the surface is now hot
enough to melt lead and Mars well its core died and then it lost its
atmosphere and its ability to stay warm maybe they could have harbored life in
the past but they hardly seemed hospitable now Earth is going through
its first Ice Age there will be four more but none will be as long as this
one little bacteria right now have started to produce oxygen though still
there aren’t animals around to breathe it the Sun is getting hotter and
brighter and the moon is drifting further and further away one galaxy
collides with ours the Milky Way and that’s how it gets its spiral arms some
cells of all the thing called a nucleus that’s where they can store their genes
those cells will give rise to all eukaryotes which include fungi plants
and animals like us one cell lives inside of another cell it becomes the
powerhouse of the cell the mitochondria because that was a different species
another Ice Age happens and time it keeps ticking by now somewhere sex is
definitely happening now it’s not very efficient but it has some benefits like
mixing up genes earth is in snowball and now it’s getting warmer again life
evolves to become multicellular now things get really crazy there are
animals evolved they develop eyes and now the universe can see. There’s tons of
these things called trilobites. Earth goes through another Ice Age. Land plants
evolve. Trilobites survive a mass extinction but they die in another mass
extinction. Forests grow. Reptiles evolve. Pangaea forms. There is a huge extinction. Dinosaurs roam.. dinosaurs roam! mammals
crawl. Pangaea breaks apart. birds fly. plants they fruit. Dinos I’m sorry they
die. primates climb. elephants browse. Humans think. that’s the universe of
history. the craziest thing to me about Oh firstly that it worked but secondly
then in all of the history of everything I can bring the camera close here all of
the history of everything it really comes down to these last three dominoes
these ones here where humans start to actually take shape this third one is
when humans develop fire it’s not even humans actually it’s one
of our ancestors here those ancestors get stone tools and on the last one
the very last Domino Homo sapiens evolve but they don’t evolve until – if
this is a million years ago and this is present-day – they don’t evolve till here.
well that was fun but I am very glad that it’s all over because I have
literally spent weeks planning this and then several days cutting thousands of
dominoes because I made them and then a full four days for four very long days
setting them up by hand but I couldn’t have done this without my family so
before I say anything else I want to thank them if you like crazy science
projects like this metaphors for science you’ve come to the right place I’m
Kurtis Baute and this is the Scope of Science and I’ve run this channel for
several years but as of this video I’m going to be changing it a lot from now
on I’m going to be making one big video a month whether it’s a science
metaphor or a big experiment if you’re in the videos like this please subscribe
to my channel so that you don’t miss out on the next one and you can like this
video if you like this video since we are in the internet age and such things
are possible if you want to learn more about the universe
I recommend listening to the book Forces of Nature by Professor Brian Cox you can
get it at there’s a link in the description that you can use to get
a deal and you’ll be helping me out by doing that so please do so books are
great and it’s even better if someone reads it for you anyway thanks so much
for watching I hope you enjoyed this and stay cool Domino people

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. i have just 3 words, THIS IS AMAZING, you are amazing, and by the way please everyone that missclicked the dislike button, FIX IT 🙂

  2. Amazing!! Love your effort that uve put into this video and ur channel. I just subbed and I’m looking forward to future videos!!!

  3. Those are some slow falling domino stones… and now I wanna watch as many Domino Day episodes as inhumanly possible.

    Still, really cool project.

  4. lets see how long you have been watching over the comments section of this video for 😀
    its so nice to see you so passionate about this, subscribed!

  5. Wow! What a great idea! I haven’t seen anything this impressive on YouTube in a quite a long time. I really don’t know what impressed me the most — the fact that all those dominos were set up and worked exactly as planned, or that he had to narrate on the fly, in one continuous take, and he did it successfully. I know! It’s the fact that he made all the dominoes himself — that’s what impressed me the most. 🙂 Very well done!

  6. How are none of the top comments discussing how ridiculously satisfying the sound of those dominoes falling is? I want a loop of just that sound

  7. I think it’s hilarious how there’s so much evidence that debunks the fact of the big bang/old earth/old universe theory that scientists have always believed. But whatever floats your boat i guess

  8. The amount of effort that went into this video is astounding. The 784,000 people who watched this and decided that it was too much effort to click Like should be ashamed of themselves.

  9. I can't believe you cut all those dominoes out yourself! I appreciate your dedication to science.

    I've got to point out one thing that bothered me, though… 4:15 This just sounds odd…
    13 thousand, 799 million = 13 billion, 799 million which is the correct way to say that number. Saying 13 thousand 799 million years, give or take 21 million just doesn't sound like it computes. I know what you were trying to say, but it threw me for a minute.

    I'm just nit-picking, though. I'm totally impressed that you had all of that memorized!

  10. Now that's dedication!!! I LOVED it! In that huge journey we only came about in the last third of the last domino and look what we have achieved………. We've almost destroyed our beautiful world that took all that time to be made. Man is powerful indeed – unfortunately!
    With all this knowledge, can't we start to put things right – or is it too late?

  11. This visual demonstration along with your words did WAY More than the clock on the wall analogy. Thank you for doing things like this. It seems like something Stephen Colbert would love. Wish more people would see this.

  12. I've learned more than I've ever did in my whole 22 years of existence in this very little video. I'm impressed, you deserve a like and a subscription. Thank you

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