– [Narrator] The Protestant
Reformation of the 16th century shook the very foundation of
Europe’s cultural identity. The Reformation was a revolution of religion in western Europe. Essentially, it was the
result of centuries worth of political and social grievances against the Christian
Church as it existed. Christianity, which began
as a fledgling religion in the 1st century, had
grown by the 13th century into an institution powerful enough to rival state governments. For instance, the Pope, then the leader of the Christian Church,
had greater political and military influence than
some emperors and kings. This tension was exacerbated
by the transformative social and intellectual period known as the Renaissance. In particular, this period
involved the rise of humanism. A philosophy that shifted man’s fate from being determined
by religious doctrine to being determined by man himself. Additionally, some within the Church believed it had become
increasingly corrupt. Priests like John Wycliffe of England and Jan Hus of Bohemia challenged
the Church’s teachings, which they believed had
strayed away from the Bible. However, one of the most
well-known advocates for a reformed Christian Church was a German priest named Martin Luther. Martin Luther began to question the Church in the early 1500s. He believed it was abusing its power and disagreed with some of its practices. For instance, he challenged
the Church’s doctrine that stated the Pope, not the Bible, was the ultimate spiritual authority. Plus, he criticized the Church
for selling indulgences, the practice of purchasing
forgiveness of one’s sins by giving money to the Church. Luther believed the Church
needed to revise its doctrine by returning to the Bible’s teachings and by saying that
salvation could be granted by faith in Christ alone. So on October 31, 1517,
Luther took a stand. In what’s considered the birth
of the Protestant Reformation Luther is said to have nailed 95 theses, or arguments against the Church, onto the door of Castle
Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Luther was later put on trial
in front of Church officials to defend his theses. But in January 1521, the Church
declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him. While Luther’s membership
with the Church ended, the reformation he argued for started to gian momentum. Unlike Luther’s predecessors
who challenged the church, Luther had one tool at his disposal that they didn’t have. The printing press. This new invention allowed his arguments to be copied and spread across Europe. This unprecedented access
to ideas such as Luther’s inspired many others to
challenge the Church, thereby splitting Christianity into two major denominations, Catholic and Protestant,
from the word protest. Also, the Bible became more accessible. Luther and other Reformists
translated Biblical texts from Latin, which was
only known by nobility and Church officials, to
German, English, and French, languages spoken by the general public. While the Protestant
Reformation revolutionized the Christian faith, it had ramifications that extended beyond religion. Prior to the Reformation, many Europeans were dependent on an educated upper class. But perhaps the most resounding
impact of the Reformation was that the common people were empowered to question religion and
other aspects of life. The Reformation, along with
technological innovations, and the introduction of other new ideas, gave many in Europe’s general public the freedom and power to
decide their own fates.

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. This extremely short video on a quite complex issue may contain some inaccuracies worth pointing.
    Purchase of 'Indulgences' never forgave sins but was supposed only shortening the temporary 'purgatory' time connected to already pardoned sins, this is a major difference.
    Martin Luther was a tormented soul, passed through some hard religious doubt experiences, and one of the reasons why he reacted against the Church Establishment was the licentious life of some priesthood at Rome.
    The bishop of Rome wasn't very powerful in political and army terms, although they may have desired to be, in 1527, the German troops from Charles V, lacking the money the Bourbon Condestable should have paid them but didn't, sacked Rome, initiating a supposed chain of fears in the Rome bishops, leading them to be under some influence by secular powers.
    Bishop of Rome Sixt V engaged in policial wars all over Italy against bandits, then with small criminals. and pressed against the British Elizabeth the king Philip II of Spain, who finally sent the 'Armada'

    The spread of his ideas through the printing machine Gutenberg popularized was a mutually beneficial event for Lutherans and printing offices.
    Freedom of thought may not have changed, just the lack of an authority controlling the spread of some concepts was new.
    No one can control thought, being told everything's all right is a different issue. Or could them?
    Spanish priesthood said that elected Holy German Roman Empire Charles I of Spain, V of Germany, had some years in purgatory after his death in 1558 for having refused to arrest Martin Luther as the Church requested from him.

  2. Este documentário representa o fracasso da religião … hipocrisia…opressão…e inquisição…apoiar ditadores assassinos…matar uns aos outros aos milhões…fanatismos …Os (ismos) …O derramamento de sangue… que falta de orientação é evidente na religião? O que mostra realmente o fracasso das religiões neste mundo?

  3. You forgot that he took out some books of the Bible that didn't agree with… So much on the Bible is the only way to salvation

  4. Deism and the return of some formally Pagan principles were the catalyst for for the renaissance and modern mankind.

  5. If reformation remains, Islam will destroy Christianity. He is already using evidence against him through reform and heresy. Unless Christians proclaim the Catholic truth and are united, in a few hundred years, the world will be full of Islam.

  6. Catholics are Christians… Catholic means universal Church. We called ourselves Christians when you called yourselves protestants. Luther named you protestants.

  7. National Grographic conveniently omitted to mention that the "church" that Luther was trying to reform and got out of, was the Roman Catholic "church".

  8. Thank God for Martin Luther!
    RCC banned the Bible, Luther and reformers free the Bible for masses to read!
    Corrupted RCC!

  9. There is no Christian religion from the beginning. The Prophet Jesus came to the people of the Israelites with the Bible to correct the conditions of the children of Israel and not to establish a new religion, but Paul and those with him were corrupted in the gospel and introduced Roman paganism in order to enter the Romans to religion and this is one of the greatest sins committed by him Paul and those with him, you know that the Romans fought the followers of the Prophet Jesus for centuries and after they distorted the Bible according to what the Romans wanted, they invented heresy and also the heresy of the cross and the cross of the Romans was an important symbol to eliminate their enemies, how they established the Christian servants of the cross and statues of Jesus and his mother To the manner of Roman pagan statues, thus forcing the Romans to impose their conditions on the followers of Christ. This is what Christianity suffers from the corruption of the Romans so far.

  10. I praise God for using this Martin.
    When I was a catholic, no one from that cult taught me to test my faith, all they say is to follow cause if you dont, youre evil. But everything change when I started to read and read, critique the teaching and what Is more amazing is, I met Jesus Christ and became my lord and savior. And I am here now, liberating my faith to God alone, not for the church I am belong, the bible is my guide and the Holy Spirit.

  11. Catholics should consider the sanctity of Martin Luther if the church really wants to amend for their past mistakes (talking about medival times).

  12. While i do like the spirit of this video, i have serious questions with its content. "Christianity", as they put it, was not under the authority of the Pope. Rather Catholicism was under the Pope, and Orthodox Christians, who populated all of Eastern Europe and portions of the Middle-East, did not recognize the authority of the Pope, anx therefore did not follow many of the corruot practices of the then Catholic church. While this fact does damage the narrative of Luther being the savior of all of Christianity and Europe from a tyranical Papacy in Rome, it is important not ignore Eastern Europe and their contributions to the political and religious landscape of Europe that led to our modern day.

  13. But what's the use???at last Europe and the west showed their backs to God and Jesus Christ…God who made them and nourished and prospered them…there is serious consequences for that.

  14. They act like all christians of the time were Roman Catholic they dont even mention the Eastern Orthodox Church which accounted for half the Christians of the time.

  15. Honestly, the Protestant revolution brought about the exact innacuracies in this video, for the record:
    1. Indulgences are for sins already forgiven in confession, not buying forgiveness through donation.

    2. The Church already allowed for theological questions and argumentation. The Western University system the Church created was known for practice of "the disputed question".

    3. The printing press was invented by a German Catholic, the printing press made the Bible more accessible period. Not just the mistranslated works of Luther and other Protestants.

    4. The Bible was already in multiple vernacular translations and in languages other than Latin before Luther and the rest published their translations that were imbedded with their own Protestant theologies, which didn't even have all the same books as the Church.

    5. Protestantism didn't do away with the elite, it just made the elite Protestant which eventually led to John Calvin's dictatorship in Geneva, Henry VIII's asserting himself as both the head of the Church and State in England murdering those who didn't accept his new wife(s), and the 30 years war between warring factions across Europe. It's an absolute mess.

    On a final note, Catholicism is for everyone from the least educated to the greatest of all Educated, for Kings and rulers, even the Pope is subject to the Faith, not even he may escape the Church's authority.

  16. Interesting video, unfortunately, this video needs to be longer. There's a lot of information missing. It will be more amazing if done so.

  17. The Reformation is over. All that is left are post Christian communities and dying fundamentalist para-churches willingly serving an all-out assault on Christian faith and morals. Communities with dwindling followers and a prognosis for self-termination by 2050. What began as a rebellion against the abuses of the Papacy ended up becoming a tool of secular humanism and godlessness.

  18. Religion won't save you. Only Christ can. I'm non-demoninal, and my final authority is the bible, not some Catholic Fraud

  19. 1. Pope the leader of the christian church / Wrong! In the begining, just the leader of a local church among many many other churches in other places, who were founded by the apostles and CERTAINLY were not under the pope. Only later the pope decided to play the boss.

    2. Split christianity in two major denomination / Wrong!
    It was only a branch of christianity who split, protestants are children of the pope, they came from WITHIN the catholic church. Christianity DEFINETLY does not mean papal church, the apostles founded so many other churches (Jerusalem, Corinth, Crete etc).

  20. Anyone interested in the protestant reformation should look into the "tailor king". Fascinatimg story during this time period that was a direct result of Martin Luther's grievances and actions

  21. ohh please do say Pope of Vatican is the head of the Roman Catholic church,not the Christian Church……There are many other independent churches with their own hierarchy and head…Atleast research it well before such a video

  22. However translations of the bible into languages ouside latin, introduced other issues. Like lack of spiritually inspired translations or free interpretation and at times absence of Christ teaching for the salvation of the souls. Turning this excercise into a political instrument far from Martin Luther real conquest and fight. Therefore controlling of the printing is control of the Church.

  23. Most religions split due to numerous factors i.e. increased complexification of societies, integration of various cultures, role of government and so on. This is a smart move for christians that saw the negative aspects of catholicism unveiled. To this day catholicism remains controversial as it promotes pedophilia, hypocrisy, and corruption. There are other christian sectors that (in my opinion) don't deserve generally positive feedback. They have the pretty good Pope though.

  24. Before everyone was united in one faith, then they had to give away the word of God, now good job guys everyone is against each other, intellectual debates after debates never agreeing which one is the truth.

  25. Wow. As a Lutherian I didnt even know some of these things. Back then people didnt have personal bibles or ones in their native tongues…. (head explodes).

  26. "Catholics are not Christians" ?? But, seriously do Protestants call themselves just Christians? Cause we call u protestants (from "protest"). Protestants are not the original Christians btw, the first Christians were Catholics. Do you study history at school? 🤦🏻‍♀️ So much ignorance here.


  28. The Pope wasn't the "leader of all christians," but rather western Christianity. And Christianity wasn't split into 2 denominations since the Orthodox in the east has been around for mallenia by this time. Like many western sources, they refuse (or are ignorant of) to talk about Christianity wholeisticly. In the admirable attempt to simplify for the everyday learner they inadvertanly provide subtle misinformation. National Geographic, please hire more thorough academic writers to discuss complex topics. I love ur stuff and support you financially. Blessings.

  29. FACT: Mr. Martin Luther DID NOT nail any Thesis, therefore not the 95 theses. NO ONE ever saw it. Maybe u can ask some tourist in regards to that. So how did his famous 95 theses been know public. SOMEBODY foolishly made bunch of copied and give them away to people for free.

  30. This is why I’m glad I’m not Catholic, I don’t have to take responsible to the argument that Christian spawned many wars.

  31. Luther standing before the pope etc reminds me of Jesus standing before the religious leaders of his day,all in the same heart

  32. I never understood why reformers call themselves reformers as if it’s a little group all of its own,reformed theology etc,anybody who’s not part of catholic teaching is a reformer ,whether baptist or Presbyterian or whichever ,so why make the distinction,I don’t understand,all Protestants are reformers and all reformers are Protestants, we protested and then we reformed and that’s simply all it means,and. Another thing I don’t get is this and maybe somebody can better explain to me but here goes:the Catholic Church never had the truth to start with so why were they concerned about protesting against it?see what I’m saying?God never taught through catholic doctrine to start with!didnt they already know not to follow a lie cause by reforming in essence their acting like there was a time when they thought it was truth and now all of a sudden they realized it’s not,it seems like their grasping at straws or something,didn’t they already know what Jesus taught because their acting like they didn’t,a saved person has always been separate from catholic doctrine of works vs. grace and it wasn’t something that started with Luther nailing a paper to a door!?????see what I mean,it don’t make good sense to reform when their was nothing to reform from to start with🤨here’s another legitimate concern ,if Luther was a catholic priest to start with was he even saved to begin with or was he saved and then nailed the thesis to the door and got out of he Catholic Church,see where I’m going with this?

  33. Why fight for religion if you don't need it? Is there something written in the bible that you should have religion? Could we just believe in God and follow his commandments.

  34. Dangerous, biased view of disregarding completely Orthodox Christianity which is the second largest Christian communion in the world after the Catholic Church with 200 million + followers.

  35. My question is why are people so happy about this guy Martin Luther? The guy devided the church even more. Didnt Paul talk about that if someone is trying to devide the church that you should kick the person out of the society or ignore him?

  36. Your title…"Luther is said to have nailed his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Germany."
    Come on, NG! What do you think this is, some 500 year-old rumor?
    THIS is why we can't take you seriously.
    Clean up your editorial staff.

  37. Protestant culture;customs;traditions influences everything in USA;UK;Europe!

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