FROGBEAR Book Prize Lecture Aug 2018



good evening to all of you welcome to the Department of Asian Studies as jinhua mentioned my name is Ross King I served as head of the department of Asian Studies and I should say immediately I should echo what my colleague Jinhua said about how grateful the university is and how grateful especially our department is to be receiving such generous support from those uu temple and from the chinju Charitable Foundation which venerable Don J represents so we are truly grateful for the ongoing support from yo to sue and to the students for those of you who have died in realize it was three weeks so again congratulations for surviving and I understand it's it was really quite a grueling daily schedule from 8 and 12 6 and so on I think the key thing and again cinemas already I think hit the key note but it's about networking it's about getting to know other students and scholars from other institutions and other countries and I'm sure that's what ultimately will stay with you the longest so congratulations to all of you and I hope that it also sets you up for more field work in the future so let me talk a little bit about the prize the prize in the in China Buddhist studies and about the book that has won the prize and then I'll introduce the author so this book that has won the prize is a detailed study of the founder of the Japanese otaku school namely the Chinese and monk Yuen long Qi who I think in Japan is called Indian Dukey and it's the first full-length book like a treatment in English and although I confess I have not had the pleasure of reading the book yet I understand that one of the key arguments is that genuine mochi imported this Oh brought in this new discourse of authenticity into the identity of Chon Buddhism and so the the jury that chose this particular work for this prize felt that the book really opened up new opportunities for reshaping Chan or Zen studies in East Asian context so let me then say something about the author and introduce our speaker for the evening professor Jang is currently a professor in the Department of East Asian Studies at the University of Arizona and that's a campus in Tucson which I hope to visit someday soon he received his master's from nan Chi University in 1994 and his PhD from Harvard in 2002 his research interests include 17th century Chinese Buddhism especially Qian Zhen the role of Buddhist canons in the formation of east asian buddhist culture and the historical exchanges between Chinese Buddhism and Japanese Buddhism he's published a ton of articles and all the big journals that we one would expect to see Asia major journal in East Asian history Journal of Chinese philosophy monumentous Erica and his first book back in 2008 was enlightenment and dispute the reinvention of Chan Buddhism in 17th century China there's the book that he has just won his spot this prize for I'm human mochi but it's somewhat humbling because he's clearly sort of reaching his stride and them as I understand you have two books either impress or in or in progress nearly finished two different books on the the Chinese Buddhist Canon so a very productive indeed prolific scholar so it's a real pleasure to welcome you here to UBC Asian Studies the title of Professor Liu's lecture is dilemma and dogma in tongue Zen studies further thoughts on East Asian Buddhism in later centers please welcome please join me in welcoming great thank you again I'm gonna start again yeah so no problem so tonight is a big night as you can see I'm probably the only person in this room where ty so easily you can recognize me and I'm coming from Arizona Tucson Arizona yeah and before my talking any great campus like UBC I always said the organizer with dr. King for having this wonderful event to bring me to civilization so if you have been to two ciders on that so they have a coyote's we have a desert right so that's a quite different kind of landscape but for tonight as I said I I was really I am very excited because it's not for myself but for the discipline for the field I am representing which is the study of Chan Buddhism in a much later time period right we're talking about 17th century Ming and Qing Dynasty very rarely people work in this area so but there's lots of materials texts about this period right so I'm very thankful to venerable dontcha and for newton foundation to support this program and of course chief on scene watch and physician Bachchan has been working on the tian zhu buddhist network and we're rinsing i've seen this first intensive program and there can be many main coming in the future for tonight i want to come back to my lecture i guess this is going to be my acceptance speech right so after thanking all of the donors and organizers i think i want to talk about exactly I want to talk for today today I'm not going to talk about thoughts but as you can see from here it's dilemma and dogma in China studies further thoughts on East Asian Buddhism in later centuries I think for any scholars students after you have the done major project I want everybody to pause and to think about what does it mean right so right now I think it's my moment so I'm going to be a little bit experimental in today's top actually have written a completely new paper for this occasion it's a long paper of course I'm not going to read the entire paper well however I think I'm going to talk read something in the talk something and show you some slides talk those slides and see what we can generate from there so tonight's talk I'm not a pin to kind of speak about too much about the facts so I already down that in my book I'm not going to regurgitating the things I already down in my book but see what do we can move away from that topic and move forward right to push this view to the future so I'm going to read a cup of paragraphs I have written and I'll show you some slides so I'm gonna start Chun Buddhism is a difficult subject to study not only because of its apparent use of rhetorical strategies and rejection of theorizing but also because of its involvement in the formation or political social and cultural systems in the history of China Japan Korea Vietnam and recently in the West as well right China Buddhism or Zen Buddhism is very much American Western phenomena right now child studies if such a field does exist is rather underdeveloped despite numerous scholar skills scholarly work and the tremendous interests although early time history has been studied intensively in the past several decades and yield revolutionary results there are many more Tran texts and a figures in East Asia who have not yet received critical attentions the difficulty of doing trance study do not stem only from the vast number of primary materials in fact more challenging are the dilemmas and dogmas generated by existing paradigms the Chinese scholars have to constantly work with these paradigms have been developed from a particular angles of Buddhist scholars sectarian historian Gerber's Chung and the Zen practitioners Popular's then even jealous not mentioning the nationalistic tendency to elevate a branch of China or Zen developed in a country as acquiring the essence or authenticity these paradigms populating the repetitiously in the various publications about China consciously and unconsciously affect the scholars approach to child history critical scholarship is much needed to review this hidden paradigms and repudiate modify or revise them to allow the historical choose to emerge there is no more difficult area of child study than Chinese time after the Song Dynasty which is often difficult and marginalized not only did many previous scholars view Buddhism in this period in general decline in the recession so this is a tennis Chen's work Chinese Chen's word right so he wrote a famous book survey of Chinese Buddhist history child Buddhism was often was also considered of being transferred to Japan and other areas already implying a linear development model right from one place to another place and no longer surviving thriving in China but Israel in Japan although Chun Buddhism in other countries during the same period such as Zen in Edo Japan has been recognized as invigorating child studies in China's later centuries remain aberrant view as burner for already reviewed in his state of the field si this is quotation marks so that is stilling with Chon during the later period which means your name and Qing Dynasty are still too rare it is even overshadowed by studies of contemporary Chinese Buddhism which has been greatly promoted in recent years so thereafter more study in contemporary and modern Chinese Buddhism however the importance importance of Buddhism during the later centuries especially the 17th century need to be recognized because modern and contemporary Chinese Buddhism largely derived from this later version of Buddhism this is my point right the kind of a Buddhism works familiar today in China after all coming from Ming and Qing dynasties rather than his early colonists Song Dynasty and so that's the one aspect of the few the difficulty that lies in the fact that a revitalizing Tran Buddhism in later centuries does not fit in any existing paradigm which creates hopeless dilemmas for scholars like me who want to enter this view boldly to get out of these dilemmas scholars of Chan Buddhism in later centuries have to fight constantly dogmas in child studies in this paper from the perspective of the scholar who works from Tung Chinese trend in later centuries I would like to reflect upon this situation in hope to expand our horizon for future studies this is also the opportunity for me to respond to various book reviews published the recent years regarding my books first one enlightenment in dispute by the way people have been asking this book has been published in 2003 actually almost 10 years but there's still no Chinese version we have been working on the Chinese version but dr. King does mention that we have been publishing in the publishing so live this Chinese translation somewhere on the way but I have been reviewing the translations Chinese translations hopefully we can transfer you can publish that at the end of this year or early next year and the world winning book that's this one right you can see I have a beautiful portraits of teachers by the way the first portrait anybody can recognize this monk so what would is name or in familiar with this figure here just by looking at this this by the way painted by a Japanese painter we're now hanging in our mapo-gu G my wife is in Chinese in Russia future salsa Kyoto right so the tradition is soft very prominent in Japan but somehow forgotten in China so this is Chinese say into by Fei internal and I use his portrait for the cover of my first book in a second book here of course that's the subject matter and studying that's the monk called Ian long Qi and dr. King already mentioned this is England looking in Japan so by the way while met Japanese friends I always ask – this – they know England of course they don't know the second question has to know Ingemar met everybody knows England my man because Indian mama which is the being the stream being the the daily Japanese food basically but nobody knows it's named after exactly this mock sohinki nowadays Japanese do now write in Chinese characters so it's an Indian mammoth by pronunciation but a higher very if you look at the Chinese cabbage that's this moment so supposedly he was the person who abroad this being the species to Japan and become the daily food for Japanese people right so that's how he was important and his temple by the way in Japan right now they're still about 400 temples belong to the so-called about the school at the peak during the Edo period is about 12,000 1200 1200 temples throughout Japan so this is a second part by the way dr. he also mentioned my interesting Buddhist Canon we published anthology the collection of papers all the study of the Buddhist Canon so this is one of them published with Columbia University spreading Buddhist word in East Asia right so this is one of the one book another one recently last year we publish a pathology edited volume modern put his camera right so we're going to refer to Buddhist Canon until you stop but that's not going to pay one the the kind of a subject matter today so I'm going to respond to some of the reviews of my book and I will first examine how the paradigm of decline was generated and popularized in the public knowledge of East Asian Buddhism then I will reveal that that modality of the popular constructivist right so this is one of the label I use to describe the popular methodology nowadays in western China Zen study a constructivist I'm going to explain later and it's applicability in later parents because my focus is on dataview I'm going to review examining how this thing to affect the stage in later studies as I will show this constructive assistance of Chinese study will tend to deconstruct the history of early John created oversize and dogmas to truly appreciate John as a creative invention in later centuries rather by examining the DT Suzuki DT Suzuki is a famous Zen scholar and also a practitioner popular maybe in the 50 right 70 greatly popularized John the Japanese version of tram Buddhism Zen in United States and the West Libertad so if you know how to pronounce that in Chinese and oh sure of course we know who is a who sure so they the two had a very lively debate in 1950 who shall first attack disability right to accuse him his methodology and point out the problems from the perspective of the historian who sure at that time by the way working on Duvall manuscript Charlson especially I'm showing play action quick so I'm going to talk about some of that I will discuss the ontological status here I have a philosophical term ontology which means the learning of existence exactly if we're talking about something exists that is the ontological question right so this question in titi Suzuki's respond two pushers Natak is about this question what is then in itself right so we study Tran history we study art we study texts we study ideas but are we going to study then yourself what puts them together that's pity Suzuki care the most or right so we can we can talk about Zen in itself another way to address that is a pure Zen does pure then exist as well this pure them according to be desuka is beyond and above history so history cannot penetrate what he is then in the self so this means that such spiritual ideals I call these ideals are truly existence in history and a manifest themselves in textual form such as trans genealogies and Cohen literature the Cohen is the Japanese pronunciation of come on in Chinese which means the public cases a public case ton teachers masters used to train students so my point is that actually the this this kind of a question is very meaningful and in my work I actually try to adopt some of the methodologies developed affirm that kind of debate so based on this understanding of the growth of ideals in history from John Hay Street to be specific I proposed a new balanced approach to Tran history which allows us to give the trans an ideal a proper place in China studies and to go beyond merely debunking history finally I will review some of the major characteristics of Tron Buddhism in this period according to my research and showcase how a new tongue he starts his story ography is possible right so that's today's plan so I have a four sections I don't think I can talk about all of them I would read some in the class through some of the slides so now first the first one is what I care the most which is one of the lemma i I was hacked I was having and still facing and that's the narrative a decline in later centuries so there are where is textbook spell narrative account of Chinese Buddhism and Chan Buddhism there are a couple names which are very famous familiar to us Kenneth Chan for example of the right hi rich Dooley the center right so I have a slides I'm going to talk about what they kind of portrayed Zen Buddhism for example my first one of the write my Buddhism in Chinese history so this book was published I think in the 1560s right and the kind of standard textbook but here when we come to you Chung were Buddhism after some dynasty here we have a very gloomy picture here for example I have a quotations group right so there's all quotations coming from Arthur right the Society of the Song Dynasty and after in which Buddhism was increasingly appropriated by native traditions by Confucianism and Taoism right and progressively weakened there was a for different society from that of the town right since different is declining this involved as we have noted the gradually draw of upper-class interests in a patronage from traditions of Buddhist thought whose inner vitality has begun to wane it also involved the development of a pattern of the life in which Buddhist ideas and observance have found place you can find Buddhism a trend in ordinary life of a leaf in common for the common people there's something else way to the degree that this must be viewed as a separate process effect but seldom decisively by government authorities and so government policy also effect this situation right so what's the result ultimately Buddhists Taoist and folk religious elements fused into a almost and appreciated popular religion right so not we would probably cannot talk about Buddhism anymore but however it's a mixed thing Matic popular religion so let's see another author Heinrich Dooley my who wrote a very extensive history of China Zen Buddhism two volumes volumes are they been translated into English the first one covers India and China second one the entire second book about five hundred pages on Japan alone right so the whole book covers supposedly comprehensive history except what the period I'm interested later is entrance so when when it comes to that is seen I think the first book Corvus China in Chapter 12 and the thirteen Corvis Buddhism in some dynasty here he made a reference in a doubt of Buddhism Zen Buddhism in later periods but here is a quotation from his book during the mean period at the latest the history of Zen in China as a story of the transmission of the mind from Bodhi Dharma this is about Zen Buddhism supposed to be mind to mind trans transmission outside of all scriptures to to a close after some period there were indeed first-rate Zen masters directing their disciples along the proven past was an enlightened soul means okay some of them have already been mentioned right so that's referring to his previous treatment that early Song Dynasty masters but continues his remark but the client was also evident like in genuinely created figures no created figures right so that's the one of the problem the movement began to stand in the political and social explanations that historians gave for the general decline Buddhism in China applying in large part also to it's generate in general decline but Zen in particular you lay your pattern Buddhist religion which consisted mainly of Amida count right so I mean I'm into a full-price metal count then by nature somewhat elitist was able to carry on only at the cost of denying some of its elements she's no longer them for no percentage then anymore but as a mixture with the purely Amida code is part of the pure land practice however so but but it comes to a irony here because in the second volume he has to treat an ad or carry Japanese Buddhism in which he must talk about mastery England where the Obata school because that's something you cannot miss in Edo period Japanese history a group of Chinese mom coming to Japan it's a separate establishment kobayashi right so this is what he talks about right the tradition here is Oh Baku is according to him a counter-current representing every revivalists or even reactionary moment right so this is how he explains that the Chinese masters of the otaku school about the stands for the Chinese character wampa like you know from poor word won't go we know from perceiving in the town dynasty by the way if one boys you in why he was caught off on ball because he would obtain in the fungone mountain in Fujian later he went to gem see so he named the mountain also Volvo so the O Baku actually coming from the original temple in footing in China at that time called in town dynasty called futa by foot out so the main dynasty structure very much revived that tongue kind of a tradition locally in Fujian not in Johnson not not in Johnson so here is about the Chinese masters coming to Japan but but he already said it's declining in China right so the contradiction is that what were we put this monks in China in Japan they were prominent but in China it coming from somewhere but we do maybe coming from nowhere so the Chinese masters were not superior to the best of their Japanese contemporaries as well we will see in the examples that follow even though they often bore a error of a superiority that was offensive to Japanese sensitive since sensitivities the personalities of the monks who came to Japan from from the China of the decline a ming dynasty were not on par with their predecessors of early centuries so so we can see here the conclusion is rather judgmental right it's based on a classification of teaching which means these masters represent only an inferior teach compared to the early centuries so part of my book is I've been showing how creative and innovative this Chinese masters have been doing that century okay so there's a short book about Zen history cousin past and present were published by Eric Cunningham and he has a comment as all these books they have to cover over but I can sense there's a kind of a contradiction irony here because they cannot solve this problem of the declining model here so this is his work throughout the 17th century then continued to descend from its formal former height of cultural garage floor aside from the introduction of the open concept from China in 6061 there were few new movements in Zen monastic life or innovations in doctrinal interpretations right so basically he tries to kind of negotiate put these monks back into this declining model so I only cited the the famous Chinese works there of course works right but of course they are Chinese Japanese works here just with some examples have no time to coat each of them equally they have this declining description without Chan Buddhism in later period no Korea Chi Thanh for example this is Soto scholar monk the book published Patrick quite early but however in this book he actually has a very very kind of an active view about Buddhism in de jure China right we have to do including yeah Nikita says on write not innocence on with the towering figure in early child study right has a huge influence actually an American Western child study right this is Japanese car by the way after Buescher active in the seventies already passed away as when the book everyone mentioned is this Golden Age of Zen actually this very old book but however this is quite often people have been talking about referring to come Dynasty Zen Buddhism which is Golden Age so I says it's probably coming from this book only recently this book has been translated into English originally by routine shown you didn't this is PI one scholar so this translation in the regional province knighting even nineteen forty or fifty right so popular in China but you know people kind of study in Taiwan they probably brought back this idea so that's kind of a Chinese scholarship I don't have time to type it up right but I do want to talk about some recent but one of them is very popular inferential Western scholar John McCrae who passed away two years ago maybe right so he it was as thoughtful scholar and he wrote a very influential book course eating food them listen to them so the book itself is about early Tana song dynasty right but I hear he had end of his book he has to consider Buddhism Chan Buddhism and data theory so this is what he talked about them how can evolve seen later peers so this is what we care for today and in other contexts because just this is his question right because chance studies relied so much on the slowly tarnish the climax Caroline you reach the height previously is Tom right now we recognize some dynasties also kind of an invigorating so this is so song dynasty climax the most important reason is that the Japanese Han Buddhism is based on some Dynasty Chinese Buddhism toga organ come into China in the product asoto tradition of course they are ending and also other Japanese pilgrims coming to Japan exactly during the Song Dynasty so we're talking about the Song Dynasty climax Caroline right we would have to evaluate the dynamics of evolution and transmission that govern Chung in later times other places so John McCrae although he didn't study Buddhism Chan Buddhism in later period he realized the importance here without the Tong Buddhism in later period how can establish this climax paradigm right so this is only imagination today extent that the study of a trance also is Korean pronunciation of the transience Japanese can use Vietnamese pronunciation as a whole has been based on the mistaken romanticism and the simplistic thinking manifest is so clearly in writing about Chinese child we will have to rework our most cherished theory about this later times and other places as well so continue his quotation continues all they last the page of this book what were the constraints or possibilities placed on the traditions as a developing coast so time worrying Korea Japan moving on thanks for here we're talking about post Seoul could that be a possibility for us to study so that that's going to obey the question I try to solve but start a new section K so let me read this last paragraph of the first section McCrae has no doubt foreseeing the possible challenge challenge from the later Han Buddhism in light of his suggestion we may propose that a post song paradigm that we're talking about post so like could that be a post song paradigm then we add this and to replace the current decline model we have been talking about this declining paradigm for some time and we want to change that we want to change that is that possible we can propose a post zone paradigm however question remains if such a posting paradigm exists what they look like what are the core premises and assumptions it is supplement contribute to contribute even challenge the previous paragraph so this question I don't think I solved this question but it worse not asking and for the future as well so they have come to this important question in the tack of that what is then thin yourself I mentioned for me is the same as pure Zen right so this is a word once again the Japanese notion of why Japanese then this superior because it's purely because dream right then and it represent the authentic tradition an idea right so this is why called purity and this has been debunked right this idea has been people in recent scholarship because if you look at the scholarship in the modern Japanese history very much it's the modernist idea to regard the Japanese yen or the Zen in the medieval period as a pure version of right so the consensus is that there's no such kind of a cure that this company created we invented it in later time period and the tedious uzuki is one of the key figure in this movement to creating this notion of pure ZM but here in this section I'm going to argue it is still for us it's making sense for a tapas end itself right so I will give you the reason so the new exciting development of the trans then study in the West if the critical scholarship so their group of scholars work on early trying history they regard their works as critical scholarship so this kind of a critical scholarship on Zen history which is terrorized by the mentality of the debunking early child trend history in particular debunking the existence of the idealistic shows them in John history which can be traced back to the famous debate between Russia and thinking Sookie in the 1950s the the kind of concept I use to describe this kind of a critical scholarship is constructivism that's why they call constructivism right so I'm Cara rising a group of the scholars their scholarship the public and just name some of them so here by the way is not configure pointing it's a methodology we all kind of affected with adult as well including myself in my own writing right so such as furnivall John McCrae rubber shirt with his Falk Allan Cole maybe Steven hi as well right so this car is a very sharp and critical of trying history it seems clear that the image of pure Zen was created by Japanese Buddhist modernists during their its 20th century and projected back to the early Chinese child history the seemingly factual description of the mediating so this is very often the term describing Zen experience immediately the media is no media in between it's a direct it's intuition that convey meaning it's mystical as well according to DT Suzuki an atomic transmission right so the the factual description because then historiography the traditional time they all appear to be factual but actually these are literary constructs constructs contrary to historical fact so this is what I call Davonte because right now you have a fax you have a different discovery manuscripts which says exactly the country the opposite of what we believe as should be factored in history right so then it comes to this description whatever written is that this constructive approach tends to trace the process and the provenance of a particular religious phenomenon and review is constructive nature amassed in complicated social historical contexts more importantly this approach isolates the literary artistic and the ritual components manifested in the tradition without attempt to link them to a universal essence or or noumenon as numinous convert in opposition with the phenomena we all know phenomena this is from become Emmanuel Kant philosophy I think a little bit the historical background which means something is a similar to Zen in the cell right things in the cell so that kind of a philosophical concept which is supposed to characterize the tradition but exist beyond behind or above the representations of these components so for some of you process this appeared to be too abstract what I mean is that traditionally we call this contradiction right now you can no longer do that right because after this deconstruction we know all the components like they exist by themselves right there's no inherent link by link us back to this label we call them or time there's no Zen in itself as a essence as a essence manifest represent all those components so you when I you can study still study track right but a chime chime heart then ritual for example these these are the subjects for today's China study level only what is left out is this is then in itself right so how my argument later you can see I'm arguing actually we still need to what is ending yourself and it's to me and there are some examples of how this scholarship can kind of be used to evaluate some of the research one of the criticism to my book right so actually this riff is folk who is a scholar of a Song Dynasty chant or ism he wrote a long review in publishing horror Journal of Asiatic study it's about 20 pages but we're doing two books simultaneously my forum for my book is about 10 pages and he has exactly this kind of criticism one of the argument is that I still have this pure same idea because although it has been debunked it has been kind of reviewed as far as so here is what he said I am quoting here the implication here is that in my world right so this is reviewing of my work once upon a time there was a generating truly spontaneous chant practice that was not based on a livery model as way not as I said right so you feel a table is constructive approach and you still need to imagine such kind of a Zen in the past a pure zen of the sword imagined by Japanese scholars so she said it before there's all kind of blame to the Japanese scholars in the modern period for creating that so whew that's me seems oblivia oblivious to the fact that the Tran lineage first came into existence during the tongue as a literary construct as a paid pay attention to that it's a constant it's a little but which means people write that right it's not probably something happen actually in the monastic setting and that the study and the reenactment of hey geographical encounter dialogue this is the Chinese the kind of a chung monk encounter the Chinese would say the Chinese term for this is Chi van wouldn't even write that kind of that encounter among between teacher and students so this kind of a exchange right between masters and disciples we're already defining characteristics of tractors doing so many one dynasty so the key here is that you can see I'm actually according to or is Faulk committee embodying this idea of Q's them so I'm the person who still holding this old idea right I think that's probably right you need I have this idea but I've acquired different from what he assumes I'm adopting this Japanese modern scholars version but I have my reason for believing that it is true that I have a different view were related to the notion of pure sin which I have not yet had a chance to spell out in my published books on the on the one hand I don't believe the kind of the pure them it's Japanese scholars and imagine every existing Tom were some dynasty therefore I have no intention to idealize or romanticize them on the other hand I do believe that the then ideal embodying the spirit of sponte need exists right but I have a part of qualifier here exist in Zen tests right our study we do is tests right so this is a very important for us to locating where we can find this then idea is actually in text we're not talking about house somewhere but however in the text and in text only so these can be however this kind of Zen ideal spirit of spontaneity can be enlivened in the community composed of historical actors who call themselves Zen masters and more animate claims about their experience the reason why they have been called their masters and they're teaching them why they call themselves their masters their teachings then it's not because of me or Japanese scholars label them rather the maysa claim which is consensus Lee consensually agreed within their communities this claims often embedded in the texts they allegedly assert or favored become historical Jax worthy of studying the object of inquiry is not pure Zen but claims abusive so here I qualified what I mean you write I don't believe the kind of cures ends and itself it's Japanese somewhat Japanese scholars envision but their claims on such conclusion that should be the subject of study now this kind of claims if I use JL Austin who is a philosopher language his idea of elocution or speech act right so this is a doctor T must be familiar with its philosopher yeah and what he's talking about all the language that we use is a speech act we use the title of each book is how to do things which works right so it is this kind of a claim is a typical kind of speech act although curium is not suitable for objective research but as its claims or traceable and it can be situated in history history so this is one of my kind of a position here right and I think this has a lot to do with the debate between TD Suzuki and the who shoot right so Hoosiers view is quite famous right now right who sure is a pioneering failure in charge then study early Chinese and study I think about that part for historical part that has been covered pretty well who she's like but not enough on TT suicide right look cited Isuzu kiss has been the bad guy right so having this old-fashioned idea of the zen in itself which by the software abstract from Safa KO and idealistic right here is some of some of these remarks right what he's talking about it is the actors and the creators where the man who is behind the history he loses the historians objected handling here is he is referring to who she who can only do the objective study of zen history what constitutes his individuality and the subjectivity cannot be made object of historical investigation because there refuses to manifest itself objectively so here who did is look is approach that objectivity subjectivity they can mingle together but they're two separate things you do the historical objective study but it has nothing to do is then in itself right so I have more quotations for example then must be understood from the inside not from the outside right then has his own line independent of the history you guys through history cannot understand it right so basically that's closed the debate it cannot debate the rest in the Suzuki yeah and I don't have time to go through all of this but it is nucleus ideas and ideal then it is in the self is above history right it's out of something out of the space and time and we can add kind of a touch it so we will see of course I'm not supporting his idea but I do believe in some way we can talk about them in itself a more meaningful way I want to bypass some of the pages to focus on my argument whether this is wrong I wrote a long section found this by the way I will just mention this kind of constructive approach for nowadays when we do religion very much difference by postmodern theories there a lot of the fear is going on but I want to call it tension call your attention action to the unties theory side so since we always mentioned the French kind of theories the Foucault the rid all the kind of the famous name but they are also from the right from the beginning they are the counter-current arguing against the post-modernism especially in the science field I'm not very much in humanistic or social science but in size for you so I want to mention a couple of books and some of the events right only because I came to the United States in 1996 right so this is a famous so-called hoax I'm not sure if a doctor came remembers that but I came here I try to learn almost everything this just came up to be on the news this news headline and is about scholar right is about intellectual debate place gave this scholar who is the scientist publish a paper of disguise that in a very dense postmodern as the theoretical terms and that God's got accepted in a journal to publish that what happened after publication he actually exposed the nature of the false claims he made in this scientific paper in another journal so that cost that he paid what's wrong with this a peer-review right the people who did the peer review and this journal only because the feeling right it's only to go there is nothing substantial they're doing the research so I let SoCo hit himself he wrote a book about this and then in addition in the history social science field there are other books right as I mentioned cup of them for example Kies wins waist tutor right he wrote a book cleaning of the history how livery critics and social theorists are murdering our past for example right and also one of them follow G here is called theorists Empire you can tell from the name these are against theory anthology of the D spins right so this is about 46 essence collected from where is kind of assertions in a written by scholars philosophers and also social scientists so these are the books you can of course they talk about construction constructivist so how what's the problems right inherited in those kinds of methods so I'm gonna bypass that I so it looks like that's going to be very tedious be faith but I do you have something I think I'm gonna read up one paragraph in this section to conclude what I want to talk about right so this is the exact the fundamental question I try to tackle in my study of Tran dualism which means to give Zen in a stuff a place in history only expressed in place lay my purse book right so I have this implication stacked I have this believes and ideas but I didn't say that in my book so I think this moment today is the occasion for me to say that what I propose is to give then in the self the place in the contextualize the history and regarded as the textual ideals right he might study I do is text I reflect upon the nature of the text what's the importance of text I use a lot of a certain kind of texture by textual ideas textual revival textual speciality for example so these kind of a textual ideas contained in the numerous contexts and only refight in linguistic expressions such as claims to claims to achievements such as enlightenment lineage succession in century these ideas do exist but not in the actual physical world they're not in the actual physical world you cannot see that touch that experience that but in the extract form in relation to the text format and the active texture community as where is another term called textual community right by the way one of the gym class project cluster right so am I supposed to leave this cluster called early taxa communities right so this is the kind of another theoretical term I used in my book to interpret how this kind of as end itself then ideal actually evolved in history through the actors through communities right but I have no time for me to explain here the active texture community whose members so these mostly monks encountered this text intimately and try to offer whereas interpretations in various creative ways not just to talk China way but also literally poetically than even performative Lee so one of the characteristic Eric turistic of Chonburi seen in this time is that the Chan teachers Masters try to behave try to act according to idea so that'll make whole thing's differ so they perform encounter dialogues they don't study they don't just study but I the lively revive that tradition revived that action to put it into a historical perspective the visible demonstration of such textual ideal can be only seen in certain historical moments in which active interpreters here monks liberati of the tax reliefs by a protocol nation margin they release the ideals from the texts and made these claims about these ideals so that's one of the position I want to make clear right by the way here is the next section I'm gonna go kind of a talk about this rather quickly what I mean here I talk about text ideas but there's a portion I keep asking myself so the reason why I asked that because I used to be a philosophy major so one of the question we also ask is existence ontology right so if we talk about them I do exist where we can find it where it is so I came up with this idea right it is a textual double right so this is another idea context of double which means a parallel world created by texts within tests and Chinese civilization typically represent that so even the reality can be destroyed many times as long as we have this double exist we can always revive the Chinese culture of Chinese tradition right the Zen as part of that right and to put it further of this idiosyncratic idea to call this kind of ideal stubbles objects of world 3 according to a philosopher called Karl Popper with the British philosopher talked about for the media so first I bad the idea of a text or double right once again is not my idea by the way literally speaking tubbo is a fascinating idea just think about the devil right the idea of the double you think about yourself as individual right what happened if there's exists another new maybe another dimension into the world right so this question actually has been quite prominent in Western literature right it's one of the famous novel is by those of the asking who is the Russian awesome wrote a book about double he's right now there's a fume about that as well so what I'm talking about is a philosophical question right for example on a mention this whole picture of Chinese civilization which is spewed on texts got to be there something there about texts why Chinese people are so fascinated probably not just Chinese Japanese as well right including the East Asian civilization so much a fascinating their ways of writing by writing reading and publishing right so this is his mark Lewis who is that scholar of early China he wrote the book of a writing and authority in Regina in which he actually talked about how Han Dynasty was completely built on this texture double right what he his I'm just quoting here what he's saying is here the Chinese Empire including his artistic and religious versions was based on the imaginary realm created within texts right these texts the classics Confucian classics for example right for him is included bureaucratic government documents as well these texts sculpt in a artificial language which is classical Chinese above the local world of a spoken dialect this is one nature of the Chinese civilization above we have this classical Chinese but they needs that the each locality in the region the Earth's a dynamic which cannot penetrate it by people also in our region so these kind of dimension tension created a model of a society against the which actually institutions for measure people will measure the actuality reality based on texts more important they provide the basis of a educational program that he amassed the vision of the empire with in the upper reach of the local communities as long as you know about the text then your control empire so continues his quotation Bashir the commitment to these tax thus created the links between the imperial system in localities links for more numerous and a penetrating than those provided by bureaucratic administration dwarfed by the realm ada was supposed to govern right looks like these localities government offices all separated but also but however they are connected by this textual well the implanting of the Imperial vision of local society in the form of the written language in classical Chinese and it's texts also provide them the mechanism by which the institution the Empire survived the collapse of each of its inclination with Dynasty changes each dynasty collapse another dynasty replace that completely rebooted based on texts it was the intellectual commitment of local elites to the tax base the dream of Empire and their economic dependence ponies we have that oppose secure the longevity of the imperial system and laughter the omec presence of the written graph in chinese culture right the whole point is that reading writing publishing disseminating the text role is very important in fostering this kind of a textual in part I believe is Zen is the same exam is safe right so here are coming to Zen Buddhism but they're also people mentioned this concept textual double because obviously we have been dealing with strong texts and we're talking about trend there's something in Chan texts what is that what is that right and here is coming the quotation coming from burner phone right he is a recounting Yamashita saison I mentioned his name a Japanese scholar greatly influenced the contemporary Western powers and study lots of people think he is a critical Zen historian we recognize that whatever the Earth's other side of immigrants is armed with very sympathetic to Chandra Zen tradition so this is what he said so boner forest was recounting yo nagisa-san visit painting son a Korean monastry what happened in Haines anybody have been talking huh yeah you know about what's that place is back it's about what is canon so one of the reason why I studied for the skin exactly because my fascination where's the texts in the Buddhist Canon is one of the largest collection of Buddhist texts I already know what's the impact of Buddhist texts a huge fraction of that on the chung community and Ayana distance on feel the same way and if he commented this is what is burner for recounting jana jesus on kind of commenting on haeinsa collection of the blocks or the blocks the olden plants are not just some art they are one half of the leading founder and as such they are waiting for the other half to pay its respect that the funder said had all passed away but the wooden belongs with me what does it mean what does it mean there's another half waiting waiting so can merge together each word and a phrase of the Zen tax is looking for its other half wanted to be united with this reader isn't this the inner most of the innermost so this becomes mysterious what is this in the most of in the motion data so he said it is Zen in itself so we can sense there's some similarity and connections here so this is my question I talked about it is a tax with double right if you accept this idea I want to push myself even further right we talk about existence ontology usually we have this dichotomy about the the physical objective world and the subjective right is that possible we have the third world right here we have a theory of car popper I hope he's a very famous actor for something else he wrote the many books philosopher it's most famous one actually it's open society and its enemy and he's analytical philosopher and gloss to also philosopher of science he proposed what he proposed here is that the their threes worked by three words there were one we can understand the so called entities here including processes forces in the material bodies right so the kind of thing objective were we all familiar with and or the mental state what's going on your mind can be the world – that can be accepted and then he has this very controversial concept called worth three right what is worth three right were three objects are men named by the autonomous in our chapter as well so how that exists how can that a yes right how so here it comes with texts were books to be more specific whenever I say text is not in the sense of a postmodern abstract text but it's very concrete physical kind of existence either as a manuscript published book or maybe on the stone by stone carvings with the end so we have to think about text means totality so they existed which means the word three object even independently from their physical embodiment therefore this quotation from karpova karpova the book is a physical object right so if you've read the book the book is service with the object belonging to world one therefore it belongs the world one but what makes it a significant product of the human mind its content how about is content right now that which remains invariant in the various copies and the additions you can print a lot of the physical books but what's the content and this content belongs to were three so this is car polish ideal right so here you can see the logic here what I'm arguing is that then itself then idea I'm talking about belonged to the world right so it it has is placed in reality like we cover swing more or the absence were three can be discovered as well yes you publish a book probably nobody read it and how about hungry ago there's a one reader just one reader is able to understand the content what about that although the where is realms or regions of worth 3 arise as human invention they also arise that the end intended consequence of these inventions autonomous problems and the possible solutions to them so by the way core property is the philosophy of a science right so he his mind that the world three objects refer to scientific discovery theorems right the the mathematic mathematic for example so here I would add the Zen ideals as well that's worth three objects the these exists independently of anybody anybody's awareness of them they can be discovered by us in the same sense in which other things say new element elementary particles in the world one by four and no mountains of rivers before one can be discovered by us no doubt there is still a long way to go before grasping the up so that's not car proper anymore right so this is super novel with cream to burn off all hear what he says about the the tax of double Jana this is on actually kind of the pointed out so what he's saying is that I'm gonna find the place this lost cheese okay so here is burner phone in his review of the field already since the need incorporate the same ideas into our historical research of child history as I'm saying not just myself but other scholars also feel the same way following the comment on the Agena see science visit to high ends up coming from the same source burner for remarks so this is his remarks no doubt there's still a long way to go before grasping the implications of innermost of in emotion this is young again citizens only from work tuition Allah devices what it sure is there the historicist approach which has prevailed until now it's no longer sufficient it's not enough it's good but not enough but there's also no question of us falling into the kind of a historical mysticism to which Suzuki claimed to convert us so this is DT Suzuki believe there's a Zen in the self right I don't believe it either by the way but however there's something lacking here we need to feel the ideological critique it's more than ever necessary but it must take into account of religious motivation and a not simply treated them as typical cases of false consciousness for this we need to consider Trans Am as a total social phenomenon to place it is where is contact cultural economic social artistic really Center no longer merely political so this is what he taxpayer you know coming back text text double right so this text double is not cannot be a mere object it is the ritual shifter which allows the fusion of horizon aimed at by any researchers worthy of this name in a sense the wooden block right back to the analysis on the wooden block quietly sitting Heinze or the negative of the collection from the founders Hall here he is talking about to County so this tax only surviving career by the way the Chinese later Chinese Zen Buddhists they all ignorant about that but however only survived theater and I'm the pasta so he is talking about two sides right negative and positive as always men and women where where each forms have the body in search of the other half I wrote that out for a half a century the search of the other half of myself right so this is one of very inspiring remarks so we need to consider that as a historians what is going on no research and here comes how I do is that I've been talking about all these abstract ideas now that comes to mind study you know we're going to contribute ooh my task is one last section quickly I'm going going up going to review what I haven't done my two books right not just the award-winning book but also my previous publication which is a bad Chan or Zen in the world of 17th century Anastasia I bet amid that I have written two complicated books by these two books by the way are very complicated I appreciate reduce these two books received after its publication this review is limited by space they were given the epidemic journals often tend to summarize the chapters and the focuses on some aspects of my works however as I have described in my previous discussions I do have the large picture of the history of China Buddhism during the period and the theoretical methodological concerns in my works I can I believe have to have said some in my previous talk I want to take this opportunity to reflect upon them although my books appeared to be historical and the contextualizes study of the revival of Chinese Buddhism especially on Buddhism my central ceases is the documented realization of the chung textual ideal in distinction history here comes the secret hidden agenda in addition to attributing the rights of tron to its social and cultural conditions i intend to reveal how the time ideas were revitalized by his historical actors in this case a group of enthusiastic young monks I believe that Tran texts by coming to the keyword into this hug which is text textual Techtron packs contain textual ideals which can be expressed as claims to the Enlightenment experience linear succession essentially these claims have the power attributing to the ideas they embody these textual idea exists as textual doubles torment in history but it could be activated and tempted to be put in reality in particular historical moments we just need right time historical moments we can find those textual ideas as Worth Lee objects one of the one of these historical moments came during the late Ming Dynasty here comes the lame in 17th century in my first book have a study the special moment and the repeated in is summarized form in the beginning in my second book on the yuan to this book we were talking about for today these include the formation of the syncretic buddhist culture the buddhist texts revival the rites of trumpet ism gentrification of Buddhist clergy reinvention of encounter dialogue and Dhamma transmission all this you can refer to my book leaving for the racing song write the book about un page 22 to 28 in which I have a very short summary about the major findings in my previous blog each of them costs you the necessary conditions for the historical movement when Zen ideals were enlightened can history at the moment of changes thus unfolding of these ideas arising from collective consciousness and a mentality here I didn't talk too much about mentality the concept which is very much theoretical as well because one of the historical French historical tradition is called a non school – represent by some of the historic historians a man starting mentality by collective consciousness such consciousness and the mentality was generated from intensive reading writing within where is textual communities here emphasizing reading writing activities here so the ideals I'm talking about it's not isolated it's not isolated an opponent by textually exchange along a communication circuit right their communication circuit connecting these communities so once again this is not my concept there there's a European historical Robert Thornton right now he's probably he retired he was also the the Chief Librarian that had of the Harvard Wyden library had to be at one point he was pointed as a director so here is a description of the real historical process and patterns of revival which are the particularly explored in my first book first there was a major institutional disruption of competition I only mean like during which can Buddhism was cut off from the social but from the society and gradually lost its distinctive identity categorized by the obscurity of the Dhamma transmission and cease to document them in trans analogy so this major gap in history the revival as I see differently from many other scholars started with textual production such as a printing of the Buddhist Canon here comes the ten reason why I'm so fascinated with Buddhist Canon because this is right in the beginning when Buddhism trem Buddhism was revived the judging something like Justin Canon right so this one has a complicated history in Japan as well because I mentioned Ingham looking right you end on she went to Japan he actually brothers Canon to Japan you know was Reaper a near the in Japan as the Texican Canon so one of the major modern publication project Tessa Candoco is a very famous Edo period among not just for printing Buddhist Canon but a follow social relieve as well right and which greatly facilitated a reading and dissemination what was so special about Johnson Canon is a booklet print format it's no longer the Sutra format but however you can read that as a book a traditional kind of a strain bound book you can do that the trend of rereading Buddhist scriptures and the classics stem stemmed actually from outside the Buddhist world right literati thurman talking about royal means movement Japanese called human rights very famous in Japan as well whose followers facilitated a favorable mentality towards Buddhism they like Chan Buddhism in particular especially reading contexts these Tron minded the literati such as representatives of the mad john lee juil right so this is one of the lame in figure displayed the tendency of what I call textual spirituality I don't have time to explain this one but I have a paper on tetris spirituality developing teacher right this confusion Buddha is the follower and it's going to be published they're probably pretty soon such a reading what I'm talking about all this stuff from of reading printing texts and the people read that the reading was brought into the monastic community and the promoted the radical interpretation of a child based on textual ideas right so then it comes Chalmers M because people read those revive the text reduce the inspire the trunk teachers made extraordinary claims about their enlightenment experience and menu succession they start a claim they reach enlightenment and they have this correct transmission of Donald this signals the formation of the Trent ex community which were refined as a core of trombonist institutions through the spontaneous performance of encounter dialog and the mechanism of transmission so this is one of the characteristic people published genealogy where they claim they have we see this unbroken transmission from Bodhidharma and main event so I'm not sure how many people know that this one this the revival Reviver of the Linsey tradition he didn't go to Japan by the way but he was considered to be the founding favor in this Buddhist revival Tran Buddhist revival movement so this is once again copied from Bapuji – Oh Nabu ji kept very good tradition keeping all the texts they we see from China and the second one I show that in my first bill – the cover say into like the internal interview in Japanese and the England Athenians in here right so they they were famous in Japan Kotaku Bangkok right the culture of the back so this is what they were famous in Japan portrait painting calligraphies the event went to Japan Japanese worship him one of the reason is that his Chinese of he can vote beautiful calligraphy and the controls culture and if you want to see more this is the kind of amount published by the typhoon about the shock ammonia's Hall Japanese said is a Chinese style but actually is very Japanese I others say so you're still there right so I have some friends visiting the temple they were all amazed it's very huge it's a huge establishment considering Edo period actually the Buckelew actually for building new temples so this is remarkable establishment in region so this were examples of the monks like just three of them but there are many more by the way they all claim to received on our transmission well quickly spread in your moment in China and other parts of East Asia not Japan but the Vietnam as well probably not as well each of them has extortionist stories of coming to Chan Buddhism and eventually converted to Buddhism I share the commonality is that they all had an intensive reading experience of the in Texas and will greatly inspired by the idea who contained within them this moved them to act by themselves to react spontaneously in the situations which they saw things to demonstrate their spirituality the lively performance of the encounter dialogue and the street practice of Dharma transmission but one of the characteristics of amongst in this period they are argue the Dhamma transformation has to be real it's not a false claim a lot of people made flaws claim and they debate about that what is your evidence they want to see the evidence to prove it is authentic transformation of course it's very much impossible because I have been mentioning there's a gap major disruption in history which prevent them to do that but they all present kind of a kind of a pretended to do that during the 17th century so even right so hero talked about the monk I'm studying here the u.s. success in Japan further prove the power of the Zen ideal in the Jamison tissa tee at the title of my book the subtitle is authenticity crisis exactly because he claims so much he represented the the authentic transmission from China he Riley in Japan with no political or economic resources like no money right the old political support but only with one claim what's that claim the authentic transmission of the G for the entire ocean the dingy totem right ninja to them so this shot the Japanese but nobody can claim that in Japan but this Cooper mom can do that yeah and they created the whole new kind of scenario for Japanese Buddhist and later all Japanese politically they didn't say they all claim they are they authentic transformational indeed indeed the historical circumstance in China Japan were quite different today experienced the transition towards the Tokugawa rule in a more strict administration religious affair the Chinese and the Dutch were restricted in Nagasaki can see however email and the Chinese monks were exceptions so they should be another side but it eventually end up in killed this is extraordinary extraordinary despite the opposition and then professor converse ''tis against them they were able to I move out of the sake and settle in Kyoto the political and cultural heart of Japan well describing the triumph of the ideal I'm a point at the inherited contradiction of the movement as well and the irony of their invasion of Chan Buddhism on the one hand they claim to be time masters but they all claim to be another hand the reality is already the mixture of practice so looking at their practice act is very much a mixture with a different kind of a ritual in monastic traditions rather than according to the ideal so there is a contradiction between ideal and reality as well this is why I described the situation in the 17th century as the authenticity crisis because when you look at the reality the half course of course it's not exactly the same as every tradition face the challenge of reinvigorating between ideal and reality here is my point something can exist as a pure ideal without its actual existence in the physical world but if the group of people share the same belief about about its existence as actors and ages they can act on behalf of that ideal and the president in reality of course realization of such an ideal in reality is not always correspondent an ideal even country to that this does not mean such a pure idea never exists where it's false similar to the chan movement in the 17th century it was the active community who believed in pure Zen and wanted to revive it it is what we want to claim the pure Zen was ending itself never exist so here comes the conclusion but before that I have a map showing the distribution of this tradition nominates in China but also you can see it extended to Nagasaki Kyoto and also to Taiwan right basically right so the overcoat tradition in Taiwan there's a presence in Tainan as well and all the way along the coast to be mom thanks going to be non at the time as well so this is about communion right dressed up in the costume designed by the bakufu they dress up there all the secretarial identity in Japan is very clearly kind of the demonstrating in their roles so here comes conclusion it's very quickly just one or two minutes I'm going to stop here what I want to say is that it is still meaningful to talk about them in itself or museum pure then a more nuanced and sophisticated way without isolating or idealizing it from its context I believe they they are the world 3 object in car propers term at least necessary ontological postulate in hypothesis without which it won't be difficult to study religious phenomena with the risk of reductionism unlike Suki there is no need to pit them against history it's not necessarily conveying battle in opposition subjectivity against objectivity assuming zen in itself as pure exhibit experienced a mediated mysticism were progeny intuition this is DT Sookie's work progeny intuition but our object of research is rather Praja claims I have been talking about we study claims which have their role in human process we were still very humanistic right and a part of the history making I call my own approach ballast that's probably the wrong word we can call that the eclectic because in the middle because it immediated the tension between inner and outer as a scholar of the religion will always try to struggle within yourself what's the insider-outsider subjective objective practitioner historians Suzuki's for who she's supported right so all this I consider myself kind of falling in between Annapurna first rung inside an oversight remains a fundamental work regarding the methodology of child study many new measures were proposed to approach China Zen however there's also a positivistic tendency he felt is over critical either some critical scholarship is over critical as he pointed out in his review of child study ok so I think it's here he was kind of a he made remarks right and the originality of Janaki does say science position here once again we talked about Nikita and I have been talking about yanagida CSUN has a similar kind of in-between position here right he saw asserted itself while he criticized the excess of historical critiques of John made by Sekiguchi shin tae-hwan Cochin top right so this is 10 PI historic Japanese tantaran story we insisted on showing that all the histories of John are fraudulent it's fabricated for yanagita although traditional Chinese geography cannot claim the status of the truthful narrative okay can it be dismissed as a empathy fabrication so I don't want to say that I don't believe these are fabrication even they are contrary to facts the analysis on criticise Postum mystifying narrative of the history of the land and at the mystifying history of a hyper historicism and attempt to emphasize the religious creativity of those inventions so I believe in that as well these are inventions but very creatively so he's shocked isn't sure she saw no can't you right so to teach I'm thumbs this sheet against you though it's a rigorous application of a textual criticism to belong in the historical tradition but a yanagita takes pure in a nuance his position in the preface to his work right there's something else we overlooked that the analysis approach just one more paragraph for me but Emily to the balanced position and scholarly excellence of the appearance of son I have done nothing other than recounting the history of the unfolding of a Zen ideals in later centuries and challenged the prevailing academic discourse of decline with my work so I already show that it's not a decline I feel extremely satisfied when I read the last paragraph of greatest folks long review and mentioned briefly spoke made a long review I think this paragraph actually makes me very happy there's something about Chinese then in the later century this is what he said the final impression I take away is this reason for from these books is when is my book another one means natasha Harris book on something done right is that at all the Chinese chant tradition was pretty consistent is it didn't stop at a Song Dynasty and consistently impressive in the masters it produced not just colonist own dynasty sorry about typo from song time all the way down for me right as you can see here this is a highest regard I think an appreciation from the scholar of early periods I'm a collab out of my work played the role in changing the assumptions about the later centuries thank you very much

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