(♪) This video, the one you’re watching right now, was brought to you by the Great Courses Plus. A subscription, on-demand video learning service with over 9,000 top-notch lectures and courses. To name just a few of the lectures, there’s United Nations: A League of its Own, which goes about breaking down the U.N. African Kingdoms and Trade, that explores and explains sub-Saharan history. And Daniel, a professor who didn’t realize they were rolling. [Daniel] Uhh… right. I gave them a watch and enjoyed them, and so can you. Get yourself a free trial by visiting www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/featurehistory Or click on the link in the description like a normal person. Also, the site’s now optimized for the 𝘨𝘰𝘰𝘥 countries. Hello, and welcome to Feature History. Featuring the Rwandan Genocide. Or as I like to call it, “limited or no ads.” But that’s what we have sponsors and donations for, isn’t it? Over the course of a mere 100 days, the small country of Rwanda got to experience just about every single war crime possible, 1,000 times. And when talking about African atrocities, we tend to get to hear so much about these tragedies, but never so much why they happened. I’m sure you’d like to know why. And maybe asking why I’m still talking about why. Well I say, let’s get “why-te” into it. Rwanda was a kingdom set in a green, fertle land of many, many hills. It existed since… well actually, that’s a tough question. The history of Rwanda is so obscure and so undefined that even the origin of its two ethnicities, the Hutu and the Tutsi, is unclear. I’m gonna offer you a theory, but feel free to disagree. The Hutu and Tutsi are not really two distinct ethnic groups. They are very similar genetically, culturally, linguistically, and “etceteraly,” Tutsi simple meant ‘noble,’ and Hutu ‘peasant.’ It was a kingdom, after all. The minority Tutsi held the lands and owned the cattle, and the majority Hutu would work it. Their differences came from lifestyle, even the physical differences. Taller stature and fairer skin is a luxury that comes with an easier life. In the 1890s, the German Empire would claim Rwanda as part of the German East Africa. They believed that Tutsi and Hutu to be races, and Tutsi the clearly superior one. Given this, the Germans enforced rule through the Tutsi. The king, Mwami, was a mere puppet of colonial officials. Rwanda was given to Belgium after WWI and incorporated into Rwanda-Urundi. And under the Belgians, the race rhetoric was turned up to eleven. Skulls, noses, height, and all things measured, compared, and recorded to tell Tutsi from Hutu. Once a conclusion was made, the ethnicity was printed onto an identity card. Not too dissimilar from Nazi Germany. The Hutu were pushed into forced labor to harvest coffee for the Belgians. The brutal and all-too-fatal work was overseen by the Tutsi enforcers. And for this, they were rewarded their privilege status. The Tutsi were preferred in education, housing, and work, and segregation was present in all these things. The second world war would see a shift.The United Nations took over control of the colony, and the Belgians were now under instruction to prepare it for independence and majority rule. Majority rule would mean Hutu rule. And so the Belgians suddenly switched their favor to the Hutu. Southern promotions of emancipation, equality, and democracy left the Tutsi and the Hutu in a tense standoff. The Tutsi feared reprisal, and the Hutu wanted it. In the 1950s, an independent Rwanda was inevitable. But what kind of Rwanda would this be? Hutu and Tutsi political parties formed, such as Parmehutu and UNAR. One offering a Hutu-dominated republic, and the other, the existing Tutsi monarchy. Rwanda was ready to explode, and when rumor spread that Tutsi were killing Hutu, it did. Novemer 1959 saw the Hutu break out in riot, arson, and looting. The Tutsi were quickly victimized, and the Mwami proposed a counter-attack. A Belgium military intervention was almost immediate, however. The Mwami’s plans were ceased as the Belgian took back control. The Belgians decided to mediate elections and a referendum for 1961. A vote that would decide Rwanda’s future. The Hutu voted overwhelmingly for their republic, so given this and the ongoing anti-Tutsi violence, the Mwami and over 300,000 Tutsi entered exile. Rwanda-Urundi broke apart into Rwanda and Burundi in ’62. And the Tutsi refugees found themselves in Burundi or up north in Uganda. Those in Uganda fought several skirmishes with the new Rwandan armed forces, the FAR. It’s- it’s a French acronym, okay? With this excuse, Tutsi discrimination was quickly ushered into the republic under the guise of cracking down on rebel activity. Burundi was a stark contrast to Rwanda. Burundi saw a Tutsi military government ruling over Hutu majority. And in ’72, their country strife dissolved into a genocide that killed 200,000 mostly educated and political Hutu. Hutu feared Tutsi and Tutsi feared Hutu, and as we all know from Yoda, fear leads to anger, anger leads to etcetera. ’73 saw a general, Juvénal Habyarimana, seize power in Rwanda. Under him, all political activity was banned. Rwanda was a one-party state. Surprisingly, being the Hutu he was, he made a small effort to reconcile Tutsi and Hutu. His attempts were met with outcry. The Burundi genocide was in fresh memory, so no reform was to happen under the moderate president. And Rwanda was no home for the Tutsi. That didn’t stop Tutsi men like Fred Rwigyema and Paul Kagame trying to change that. They belonged to the Rwandese Alliance for National Unity inside Uganda. They participated in the Uganda Bush War in the 1980s, and found themselves in high positions after their victory. The life of a refugee was not for the Tutsi, however. The Rwandese Alliance for National Unity reformed into the militaristic Rwandan Political Front. It was a veteran force armed and poised for an invasion into Rwanda to finally repatriot the Tutsi with their home. A home any of these refugees weren’t born in. October 1st, 1990, the RPF invaded Rwanda. Crossing the border, the rebels had caught the superior FAR off-guard and pushed far in a few days. But this only lasted a few days. Commander Rwigyema was soon killed. How he died was unclear, but fact was, he was dead. Kagame had been studying in the U.S. but quickly dropped his course to fight the war, as you do. On top of this last, hundreds of French troops arrived in Rwanda to protect French nationals. Except that was just the cover. Rwanda, being a Belgian colony, was a member of the French-speaking world. Uganda, though, was a former British colony, and so the French who wished to protect its francaphonie societies from seemingly foreign threats. Kagame arrived to see the RPF near destroyed. The less than 2,000 troops that remained, he’d bring into the mountains. He had them being nursed back to strength, as Kagame sought out funding for his guerrilla war. It was only with the new year an offensive resumed. A much slower, more guerrilla offensive. With both FAR and French, though, President Habyarimana’s position seemed secure. The French would threaten withdrawal, however. Pressure was put on Habyarimana for political freedoms and equality in his country. The president would make token concessions, allowing opposition… that held no power. The one opposition that did hold power was his own wife, Agathe Habyarimana. She was a Hutu hardliner, and around her formed the Akazu clique. A secret group of powerful radicals. They spread propaganda against the Tutsi, encouraging discrimination and violence. And in return, the Tutsi would turn to the RPF more and more. The people would face a breaking point in 1992. With a dire need of reform and a state of civil war, Habyarimana would once again announce a one-party cabinet. The capital, Kigali, would break out in protest. He’d give in and finally allow a multiparty cabinet. And to remedy the unrest, agreed to negotiate with the RPF for the first time. July, ’92 saw a ceasefire and the beginning of peace. The negotiations would not be between the FAR and the RPF, but instead between Kagame, Habyarimana, and the Akazu. Kagame only looked to appease international onlookers as to not appear a relentless rebel. The Akazu thought differently. They rejected any peace. And the president was just making sure he kept his job. Nobody cared about peace. Throughout the negotiations, Habyarimana developed a fear of the Akazu. His wife and her affiliates, such as Theoneste Bagosora, had become very powerful and very threatening. He tried to purge their influence, but this only evolved their fury against Tutsi to include immoderates and anyone against them. Bagosora encouraged self-defense militias across Rwanda, spawning the loosely-organized Interahamwe. Agathe would create the Thousand Hills free radio station, a source of nothing but Hutu power and anti-Tutsi rhetoric. February ’93 saw a killing spree break out. The Akazu to blame, and Kagame’s RPF responding by leaving the peace talks and reopening the offensive. Originally, this wasn’t supposed to be a two-parter, but now it is. And I promise the actual genocide will be in the next part, not too far away. I’d like to thank the patrons and also thank the Great Courses Plus, because without donations and sponsors, I couldn’t do these more contentious topics like genocides. If you enjoy the content I put out and you can’t or won’t donate, give the sponsorship a check, at least. Who knows, you might like it. Ta-ta, now.

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. Given that the intro overshadowed the video to the point 90% of comments were talking about it, I took it out
    – Pronunciation is as usual; flawed
    – Just about every symbol in this video is made up, not real symbols
    – 3:04 It's Ruanda-Urundi, not Ruanda-Burundi
    – 6:47 Rwandan PATRIOTIC Front, not the Rwandan Political Front

  2. "Let me introduce you to Carter's theory of criminal investigation…..every crime has a rich white man behind it, waiting for his cut"
    – Rush Hour 2

  3. did you seriously compare an enormous genocide to demonetization of youtube videos? thats not even close to fucking funny.

  4. 1:36 and I'm out. Whoever wrote the introduction to such a serious topic ? It just makes some people think that they can't trust the information given. I'll try a different documentary about this.

  5. Am I the only one who got half way through this before thankfully getting "S for sun in Tutsi"
    Also the president's wife. What a bitch.

  6. Shit, that must have been fun going to bed with that woman at night. Impressive how that marriage lasted

  7. Why are you not talking about Rwandan Tutsis that were slaughtered in 1959 and so on. Killings didn't just start in 1994. In Burundi I wouldn't call it a genocide vs Hutus. Granted a lot of Hutus died, but people were massacring each other on both sides.

  8. You lost me at whyte. Thought I would learn more here but after that start…well I realized I knew enough. Btw, they slaughtered the poor belgium whites long before they started slaughteringeating each other.

  9. Ah, yes. Black people kill each, other using machetes purchased from Asia, because of pre-existing territorial disputes. But blame whitey, because brown people are so intrinsically peaceful.

  10. Whyte!?!? Lets get something straight. In Asia, Middle East, Europe, South America and North America different tribes attacked and killed each other since the dawn of man. Africa is no different, to be honest we can actually say that colonization prohibited this kind of violence from happening. When europe left africa to its own devices, they just continued where they left off before the europeans came. To even think otherwise is naive and illogical…

  11. WHITE PEDOPHILE MURDEROUS CRACKKKERS destroying more african people. Should had won that last battle against scipio africanus in 202BC mr.ethiopian hannibal.

  12. I thought the situation was the Hutu's were originally a more hunter-gatherer culture while Tutsi were farming, and the colonial power that be used the usual divide and conquer tactic by giving the Tutsi more privileges and administrative positions?

  13. what Burundi n Rwanda seperated in 1962???? the lies the lies the lies😂😂😂 this is so stupid

  14. Lets be real :
    When this dude would just told the same Intro when its about germany and mass genocid it would be a very different Story… Some people would be very angry

  15. A Belgian colony? That was given to Belgium by the German Empire? And it surprised people something like this could happen?!

  16. This video is tone deaf to the actual tragedy that transpired. The upbeat music, the dry jokes. It’s a time and a place for everything now is not the time.

  17. Sub-Saharan African Tribes that didn't like post-colonial borders were just xenophobic bigots. They should have been thankful they too, like the West, had multiculturalism and diversity forced upon them
    I mean, if diversity and multiculturalism are so good, then surely it should be good for sub-Saharan Africa too.
    The White Nation with the highest IQ, is the White Nation with the highest population of White People, coincidence? Countries like France that willingly reduce their own native White population, have watched their average IQ drop, in pace with the decreasing White numbers.
    The reason Sub-Saharan African Tribes never travelled and discovered new lands or invented/contributed anything to the modern world is because they, on average, have much lower IQ's than East Asian and European Peoples. That's why they tend to stay put and just fight each other.
    Now they're all about female genital mutilation, breast ironing, and like from the beginning of their existence, slavery and cannibalism.

  18. One of the reasons i say the united nations is a huge waste of money and time. Rwanda was perfect place to use them and they couldn't deliver

  19. I'm trying to find information on the white colonialist genocide that happened right before the hutus and tutsi genocide. It only lasted 2 days and all white ppl were dead. The wealth of these ppl was then stolen. The murders were prompted by antennas that were placed in strategic areas in order to beam murderous frequencies long enough to accomplish the white genocide. Then the antennas were removed. Several teams worked together to pull this off. I wish someone could report on this atrocity.

  20. Devide,conquer n rule at its finest.lets give the white men colonizers an applause.👏👏👏👏👏👏👏👏

  21. I love how there was a prequel to the genocide that was twice as deadly as the Yugoslav wars but got no attention

  22. Belgium failed to civilze them ! They should have stayed longer ! Tutsis versus Hutus predates the colony ! Belgian managed to keep them from killing each others ! Blacks are like that ! Stop blaming whites for blacks failures !

  23. That's the soundtrack from Far Cry 2 ! Seems veryy fitting since the game takes place in an unnamed Central-African nation in civil war.

  24. What if I told you that Hutu and Tutsi don’t care about genetics and have treated each other differently for millennia and were killing each other long before Germany or Belgium even knew the place existed? Everything cannot be ferreted down to “white people did it” no matter how sexy it is for views

  25. The Tutsi is the Kaike of Africa. Western propaganda paints Rwandan history as starting in 1994, because to talk about it before that point reveals what a bunch of lies videos like this are.

  26. I'll admit. I keep seeing those promotions for learning stuff and all that and they work on me (the promotions that is) but got no money :/

  27. Destituito il Comunismo non c'e' piu' antagonismo e' certe popolazioni hanno perso ogni protezione

  28. Sorry is Great Britain and Australia the only good countries is this what you're insinuating though you're not insinuating you're actually saying it so you're actually trying to insult the very views of your video?!!!!!!

  29. long and drawn out blah blah. Just say Belgium caused the two groups to fight each other. Has Belgium paid repatriations yet ?

  30. What do you mean "optimized for the good countries" *proceeds to show the UK flag and Aussie flag. Is that some sort of slight to the US? Or just recognizing that the US is great and those are merely good? I'll go with the latter for your sake.

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