The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus
of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that
reside in the nations of Europe. According to the German monograph Minderheitenrechte
in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of
which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining
54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic
minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million
Europeans.There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms “ethnic
group” and “nationality”. In the context of European ethnography in
particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality and ethno-linguistic group, are
used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation
specific to the individual countries of Europe.==Overview==About 20–25 million residents (3%) are members
of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union, with
some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special
cases, in that the designation of nationality, Spanish and British, may controversially take
ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups (see nationalisms and regionalisms
of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom). Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic
subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations.==Linguistic classifications==Of the total population of Europe of some
740 million (as of 2010), close to 90% (or some 650 million) fall within three large
branches of Indo-European languages, these being; Slavic, including Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
Croatian, Czech, Kashubian, Macedonian, Polish, Russian, Rusyn language, Ruthenian, Serbian,
Slovak, Slovenian, Sorbian and Ukrainian. Romance, including Aromanian, Catalan, French,
Friulian, Galician, Istro-Romanian, Italian and Corsican, Megleno-Romanian, Romanian,
Romansh, Portuguese, Sardinian, Spanish, and Walloon. Germanic, including Danish, Dutch, Faroese,
Flemish, Frisian, English, German, Icelandic, Limburgish, Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, Norwegian,
Swedish, and Yiddish. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is
spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations.Three stand-alone Indo-European
languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger
language families; Greek (about 12 million)
Albanian (about 9 million) Armenian (about 3.5 million)In addition, there
are also smaller sub-groups within the Indo-European languages of Europe, including; Baltic languages, including Latvian and Lithuanian. Celtic languages, including Breton, Cornish,
Irish, Manx, Welsh, and Scots Gaelic. Iranic, mainly Ossetian in Europe, as well
as Kurdish (spoken mainly in Turkey) Indo-Aryan is represented by the Romani language
spoken by Roma people of eastern Europe, and is at root related to the Indo-Aryan languages
of the Indian subcontinent.Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families
on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European: Uralic languages, including Estonian, Finnish,
Hungarian, Komi, Livonian, Mari, Mordvin, Sámi, Samoyedic, and Udmurt. Turkic languages, including Azeri, Bashkir,
Chuvash, Kazakh, Nogai, Tatar, and Turkish. Semitic languages, including: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
(spoken in parts of eastern Turkey and the Caucasus by Assyrian Christians), Hebrew (spoken
by some Jewish populations), and Maltese. Kartvelian languages (also known as South
Caucasian languages), including Georgian, Laz, Mingrelian, Svan, and Zan. Northwest Caucasian languages, including Abkhaz,
Abaza, Adyghe, Circassian, Kabardian, and Ubykh. Northeast Caucasian languages, including Avar,
Chechen, Ingush, Lak, Lezgian, and Nakho-Dagestanian. Language isolates: Basque, spoken in the Basque
regions of Spain and France, is an isolate language, the only one in Europe, and is believed
to be unrelated to any other language, living or extinct. Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk,
spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia.==History=====
Prehistoric populations===The Basques have been found to descend from
the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum
groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture
of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations,
after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe (Yamnaya culture, Corded ware,
Beaker people). The Finnic peoples are assumed to also be
descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains,
that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago.Reconstructed
languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these
Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the
satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to
have included Etruscan, Rhaetian, Lemnian, and perhaps Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only
be reconstructed with great uncertainty. Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only
secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic
and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language (assumed
for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating
an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.===Historical populations===Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations) populations
of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemy and Tacitus: Aegean: the Greek tribes, Pelasgians, and
Anatolians. Balkans: the Illyrians (List of ancient tribes
in Illyria), Dacians, and Thracians. Italian peninsula: the Camunni, Rhaetians,
Lepontii, Adriatic Veneti, Ligurians, Etruscans, Italic peoples and Greek colonies. Western/Central Europe: the Celts (list of
peoples of Gaul, List of Celtic tribes), Rhaetians and Swabians, Vistula Veneti, Lugii and Balts. Iberian peninsula: the Pre-Roman peoples of
the Iberian Peninsula (Iberians, Lusitani, Aquitani, Celtiberians) Basques and Phoenicians
(Carthaginians). Sardinia and Corsica: the ancient Sardinians
and Corsicans (also known as Nuragic and Torrean peoples), comprising the Corsi, Balares and
Ilienses tribes. British Isles: the Celtic tribes in Britain
and Ireland and Picts/Priteni. Northern Europe: the Finnic peoples, Germanic
peoples (list of Germanic peoples); the Normans, who later conquered and colonized South Italy
and Sicily. Sicily: the Italic Sicels and Morgetes, the
Sicani, and Elymians. Eastern Europe: the Scythians and Sarmatians.===Historical immigration===Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from
outside Europe during historical times are: Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean (including
regions in Spain, France, Malta, Italy and the Aegean), from about 1200 BC to the fall
of Carthage after the Third Punic War in 146 BC. Assyrian conquest of Cyprus, Southern Caucasus
(including parts of modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) and Cilicia during the Neo-Assyrian
Empire (911-605 BC) Iranian influence: Achaemenid control of Thrace
(512–343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom, Cimmerians (possible Iranians), Scythians, Sarmatians,
Alans, Ossetes. the Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the
Roman Empire period, the Jewish community in Italy dating to around AD 70 and records
of Jews settling Central Europe (Gaul) from the 5th century (see History of the Jews in
Europe). The Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged
with the Barbarian invasions, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire
Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations, fused into the South
Slavic states from the 9th century. the Bulgars (or Proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic
people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs. the Magyars (Hungarians), a Ugric people,
and the Turkic Pechenegs and Khazars, arrived in Europe in about the 8th century (see Hungarian
conquest of the Carpathian Basin). the Arabs conquered Cyprus, Crete, Sicily
(establishing a local Emirate in 831, from which they would be expelled in 1224), some
places along the coast of southern Italy, Malta, Greek Empire, Hispania (founding a
polity known as Al-Andalus in 711, from whose domain they would be expelled in 1492). the Berber dynasties of the Almoravides and
the Almohads ruled much of Spain and Portugal. exodus of Maghreb Christians
the western Kipchaks known as Cumans entered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th
century. the Mongol/Tatar invasions (1223–1480),
and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the
presence of European Turks and Tatars. the Romani people (Gypsies) arrived during
the Late Middle Ages the Mongol Kalmyks arrived in Kalmykia in
the 17th century.===History of European ethnography===The earliest accounts of European ethnography
date from Classical Antiquity. Herodotus described the Scythians and Thraco-Illyrians. Dicaearchus gave a description of Greece itself,
besides accounts of western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but
was received by Polybius and others. Roman Empire period authors include Diodorus
Siculus, Strabo and Tacitus. Julius Caesar gives an account of the Celtic
tribes of Gaul, while Tacitus describes the Germanic tribes of Magna Germania. A number of authors like Diodorus Siculus,
Pausanias and Sallust depict the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples. The 4th century Tabula Peutingeriana records
the names of numerous peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of Late Antiquity such as Agathias
of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta give early accounts
of the Slavs, the Franks, the Alamanni and the Goths. Book IX of Isidore’s Etymologiae (7th century)
treats de linguis, gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (concerning languages, peoples, realms,
war and cities). Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives
an account of the Bolghar and the Rus’ peoples. William Rubruck, while most notable for his
account of the Mongols, in his account of his journey to Asia also gives accounts of
the Tatars and the Alans. Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen give an
account of pre-Christian Scandinavia. The Chronicon Slavorum (12th century) gives
an account of the northwestern Slavic tribes. Gottfried Hensel in his 1741 Synopsis Universae
Philologiae published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing
the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages and scripts. In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed
in terms of scientific racism, and the ethnic groups of Europe were grouped into a number
of “races”, Mediterranean, Alpine and Nordic, all part of a larger “Caucasian” group. The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic
subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism,
and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda, so that it
was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.The
origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski, who
emphasized the importance of fieldwork. The emergence of population genetics further
undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe
found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north
to the south-east (northern Europe to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation
across Europe, separating the “indigenous” Basques and Sami from other European populations. Despite these stratifications it noted the
unusually high degree of European homogeneity: “there is low apparent diversity in Europe
with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population
samples elsewhere in the world.”==
Minorities==The total number of national minority populations
in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.The member states of the
Council of Europe in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National
Minorities. The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure
that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat
discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national
minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority
languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public
life. The Framework Convention for the Protection
of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities
possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states had signed and ratified
the Convention, with the notable exception of France.===Non-indigenous minorities===Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities
have migrated to Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others arrived
more recently, many in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, Dutch,
French, Portuguese and Spanish empires. Western Asians
Jews: approx. 2.0 million, mostly in France, the UK, Russia
and Germany. They are descended from the Israelites of
the Middle East (Southwest Asia), originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and
Judah.Ashkenazi Jews: approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom,
France, Russia, Germany and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have arrived
from Israel via southern Europe in the Roman era and settled in France and Germany towards
the end of the first millennium. The Nazi Holocaust wiped out the vast majority
during World War II and forced most to flee, with many of them going back to Israel. Sephardi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France. They arrived via Spain and Portugal in the
pre-Roman and Roman eras, and were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th
centuries. Mizrahi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France, via Islamic-majority
countries of the Middle East. Italqim: approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy, since the 2nd century
BC. Romaniotes: approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece, with communities
dating at least from the 1st century AD. Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000,
mostly in Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. They arrived in Crimea in the Middle Ages. Assyrians: mostly in Sweden and Germany, as
well in Russia, Armenia, Denmark and Great Britain (see Assyrian diaspora). Assyrians have been present in Eastern Turkey
since the Bronze Age (circa 2000 BCE). Kurds: approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden
and Turkey. Iraqi diaspora: mostly in the UK, Germany
and Sweden, and can be of varying ethnic origin, including Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians,
Shabaks, Mandeans, Turcoman, Kawliya and Yezidis. Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands,
Germany, Cyprus and the UK. Syrian diaspora: Largest number of Syrians
live in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden and can be of varying ethnic origin, including;
Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Arameans, Turcoman, Mhallami and Yezidis. Africans
North Africans (North African Arabs, Egyptian Copts, and Berbers): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Spain, Italy,
the Netherlands and Sweden. The bulk of North African migrants are Moroccans,
although France also has a large number of Algerians, and others may be from Egypt (including
Copts), Libya and Tunisia. Horn Africans (Somalis, Ethiopians, Eritreans,
Djiboutians, and the Northern Sudanese): approx. 700,000, mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the
Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Finland, and Italy. Majority arrived to Europe as refugees. Proportionally few live in Italy despite former
colonial ties, most live in the Nordic countries. Sub-Saharan Africans (many ethnicities including
Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, Afro-Latinos and others by descent): approx. 5 million, mostly in the UK and France, with
smaller numbers in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and elsewhere. Latin Americans: approx. 2.2 million, mainly in Spain and to a lesser
extent Italy and the UK. See also Latin American Britons (80,000 Latin
American born in 2001).Brazilians: around 70,000 in Portugal and Italy each, and 50,000
in Germany. Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet
regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East Germany
and the Netherlands. Venezuelans: around 520,000 mostly in Spain
(200,000), Portugal (100,000), France (30,000), Germany (20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland (5,000),
Italy (5,000) and the Netherlands (1,000). South Asians: approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside
in smaller numbers in Germany and France. Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary widely),
dispersed throughout Europe but with large numbers concentrated in the Balkans area,
they are of ancestral South Asian and European descent, originating from the northern regions
of the Indian subcontinent. Indians: approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Italy,
in Germany and smaller numbers in Ireland. Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy,
but also in Norway and Sweden. Tamils: approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK. Bangladeshi residing in Europe estimated at
over 500,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy. Sri Lankans: approx. 200,000, mainly in the UK and in Italy
Nepalese: approx. 50,000 in the UK
Afghans, about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but Germany and Sweden
are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the 1960s. Southeast Asians
Filipinos: above 1 million, mostly in Italy, the UK, France, Germany, Spain. Others of multiple nationalities, ca. total
1 million, such as Indonesians in the Netherlands, Thais in the UK and Sweden, Vietnamese in
France and former East Germany, and Cambodians in France, together with Burmese, Malaysian,
Singaporean, Timorese and Laotian migrants. See also Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic. East Asians
Chinese: approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the
UK, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands. Japanese: mostly in the UK and a sizable community
in Düsseldorf, Germany. Koreans: 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible
100,000 more in Russia), mainly in the UK, France and Germany. See also Koryo-saram. Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany,
Poland and the Czech Republic. North Americans
U.S. and Canadian expatriates: American British and Canadian British, Canadiens and Acadians
in France, as well Americans/Canadians of European ancestry residing elsewhere in Europe. African Americans (i.e. African American British) who are Americans
of black/African ancestry reside in other countries. In the 1920s, African-American entertainers
established a colony in Paris (African American French) and descendants of World War II/Cold
War-era black American soldiers stationed in France, Germany and Italy are well known. Others
European diaspora – Australians, New Zealanders, South Africans (mostly White South Africans
of Afrikaner and British descent), and white Namibians, Zimbabweans, Kenyans, Malawians
and Zambians mainly in the UK, together with white Angolans and Mozambicans, mainly of
Portuguese descent. Pacific Islanders: A small population of Tahitians
of Polynesian origin in mainland France, Fijians in the United Kingdom from Fiji and Māori
in the United Kingdom of the Māori people of New Zealand, a small number of Tongans
and Samoans, also in the United Kingdom. Amerindians and Inuit, a scant few in the
European continent of American Indian ancestry (often Latin Americans in Spain, France and
the UK; Inuit in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren of U.S. soldiers
from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with local European women. An estimated 60,000 American Indians may live
in Germany as of the 2010s.==European identity=====
Historical===Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples
of Europe are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants
of Japheth from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three
continents, the descendants of Shem peopling Asia and those of Ham peopling Africa. Identification of Europeans as “Japhetites”
is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages “Japhetic”. In this tradition, the Historia Brittonum
(9th century) introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period (as it was
remembered in early medieval historiography) as follows, The first man that dwelt in Europe was Alanus,
with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus,
Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus,
Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and
Boganus. From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks,
the Latins, the Germans, and Britons; from Armenon, the Gothi, Valagothi, Cibidi, Burgundi,
and Longobardi; from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones, and Tarincgi. The whole of Europe was subdivided into these
tribes.The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen
generations.===European culture===European culture is largely rooted in what
is often referred to as its “common cultural heritage”. Due to the great number of perspectives which
can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception
of European culture. Nonetheless, there are core elements which
are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann
includes: A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived
from Greco-Roman antiquity, Christianity, the Renaissance and its Humanism, the political
thinking of the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution, and the developments of Modernity,
including all types of socialism; A rich and dynamic material culture that has
been extended to the other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism
during the “Great Divergence”; A specific conception of the individual expressed
by the existence of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the liberty
of the individual; A plurality of states with different political
orders, which are condemned to live together in one way or another;
Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.Berting says that these points fit
with “Europe’s most positive realisations”. The concept of European culture is generally
linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the
set of literary, scientific, political, artistic and philosophical principles which set it
apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge
is collected in the Western canon. The term has come to apply to countries whose
history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th
and 19th centuries, such as the Americas, and Australasia, and is not restricted to
Europe.===Religion===Since the High Middle Ages, most of Europe
has been dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations: Roman
Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Northern
Europe, and Orthodoxy to East and South Slavic regions, Romania, Moldova, Greece, and Georgia. The Armenian Apostolic Church, part of the
Oriental Church, is also in Europe – another branch of Christianity (world’s oldest National
Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western
Europe, also has a very significant following in Central Europe (especially among the Germanic,
Western Slavic and Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland (with some in Great
Britain). Christianity has been the dominant religion
shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years. Modern philosophical thought has very much
been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe
has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture, The Christian culture was the predominant
force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science. The notion of “Europe” and the “Western World”
has been intimately connected with the concept of “Christianity and Christendom” many even
attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.Christianity
is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered
themselves Christians. Also according to a study on Religiosity in
the European Union in 2012, by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the
European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU’s population.Islam has some tradition in
the Balkans and the Caucasus due to conquest and colonization from the Ottoman Empire in
the 16th to 19th centuries, as well as earlier though discontinued long-term presence in
much of Iberia as well as Sicily. Muslims account for the majority of the populations
in Albania, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Northern Cyprus (controlled by Turks), and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Significant minorities are present in the
rest of Europe. Russia also has one of the largest Muslim
communities in Europe, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in
the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims in Western
Europe have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum, the total number
of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%), while the total number of Muslims
in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).Judaism has a long history
in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country
with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is composed
primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews likely migrated
to Central Europe at least as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews established
themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jews originated in the Levant where they resided
for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean
and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece as well as the
Balkans since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the
Holocaust and emigration (including Aliyah, as well as emigration to America) in the 20th
century. In modern times, significant secularization
since the 20th century, notably in laicist France, Estonia and Czech Republic. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe
is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech
Republic and Estonia. The 2005 Eurobarometer poll found that 52%
of EU citizens believe in God.===Pan-European identity===”Pan-European identity” or “Europatriotism”
is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union as a result
of the gradual process of European integration taking place over the last quarter of the
20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE following the 1990s
Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and
2000s. From the later 20th century, ‘Europe’ has
come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions
of people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies
throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and ‘pan-European’ is often contrasted
with national identity.==European ethnic groups by sovereign state
==Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples
which form the majority population in at least one sovereign state geographically situated
in Europe. These majorities range from nearly homogeneous
populations as in Armenia and Poland, to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium,
or even the marginal majority in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Montenegro is a multiethnic state in which
no group forms a majority.==See also==
European diaspora Caucasoid
Central Asians Demography of Europe
Emigration from Europe European American
White Latin American Ethnic groups in the Middle East
Eurolinguistics Federal Union of European Nationalities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Genetic history of Europe Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe
Immigration to Europe Afro-Europeans
Turks in Europe Languages of Europe
List of ethnic groups Nomadic peoples of Europe
Peoples of the Caucasus White people==Notes

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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