Articles, Blog, , ,

Early Modern Globalization Through a Jesuit Prism


>>From the Library of
Congress in Washington DC. [ Silence ]>>Edward Widmer: Good
afternoon all, welcome to LJ-119 into the Kluge Center for a
very exciting event today. We’re delighted to welcome our
friend Doctor José Casanova, who has been with us for much of
the last year as a Kluge Chair and the Cultures of the North. And I want to welcome many friends
from the Kluge past former fellows, I just met one and friends
from Georgetown University. I want to acknowledge James and
Constance from the EU delegation to the US, who have been working
with us on many programs and ideas and I believe there are friends
from the Embassy of Spain here today in addition to being
a Kluge Center event. We’re delighted to cosponsor
today’s event with our friends from the European Union and
all of the European embassies. May is the European month of culture and this is the fifth
year of that program. It is a month-long festival with a
succession of cultural events held around Washington including
in the embassies, highlighting the diverse cultures
of twenty-eight countries in the EU. And today’s lecture in addition to
being an event of the Kluge Center and the library of Congress
is an official event of the EU Month of Culture. Before I get any further, if you
are carrying an electronic device, a cell phone, if you’ll take a
moment to silence your phones, this presentation will be filmed. The Kluge Center brings
together scholars and researchers from around the world in a Global
network nearly as well articulated as the Jesuit network that
we’re going to hear about today and they come and do research just
down this hallway in their offices and throughout the library
in our reading rooms and our rich collections and it’s
a constant and evolving community and we’re delighted to welcome all
of you into our community today. Dr. Casanova is one of the world’s
top scholars in the sociology of religion, he is a professor
in the departments of sociology and theology at Georgetown, senior
fellow at the Berkeley Center, his work focuses on globalization,
religion and secularization. During his time here over the past
half a year, he’s been working on his manuscript Early
Modern Globalization through a Jesuit Prism, which
is the title of his talk today. He is published on immense range
of articles and for publications and edited books on religion,
globalization, migration, religious pluralism, transnational
religions and sociological theory. His best-known work, Public
Religions in the Modern World came out in 1994, it became a modern
classic and been translated into five languages including
Arabic and Indonesian. In 2012, he was awarded
the Theology Prize from the Salzburg Hochschulwochen in
recognition of life-long achievement in the field of theology, and
I’ll just add as an aside that, José can speak or through to
his global topic, he can speak or read French, German, Italian,
Polish, Portuguese, Russian and Ukrainian in addition
to his native Spanish. While here, he greatly aid added
to our sense of collegiality and collaboration, he was a reliable
mentor to our younger scholars and a delightful colleague for
those of us on the Kluge staff, so it is a real pleasure to
see him today, please join me in welcoming Dr. José Casanova. [ Applause ]>>José Casanova: Good
afternoon, thank you very much Ed for this kind introduction
and I would like first of all express my gratitude,
a deep gratitude for this fantastic time I spent
here the Kluge Center the last five months for all the help and
the company of the entire staff that they’ve helped
me and also I want to specially recognize the
nameless staff, that bring the books to our offices, from the first day I
felt like a kid in the candy store, you ask for candy and two hours you
get served, candy of all shapes, languages, is the only place
where you can get precisely books in every language you
can possibly know and every other language
you don’t know. So thank you very much and of course
I also want to recognize Emily who has been also helping
here and there at the Kluge for actually putting my
lecture in PowerPoint, I say extra thank you
very much Emily. It’s a pleasure to be
here and a great honor. This project is a follow-up,
basically, three years ago we directed
a project on the Jesuit and Globalization it was a
collective project, the volume came out at Georgetown University Press
and here I’m expanding the framework of the volume into
a monographic study. So Early Modern Globalization
through a Jesuit Prism. So the first question is why
Early Modern Globalization? Because usually we think
globalization either began yesterday eighty-nine or something
or is simply a continuation of modern Western hegemony,
modernization to entire globe. So it was meant Early Modern to
challenge precisely our modernist and Eurocentric assumptions
that assumed that everything begins
with modernity. There was tradition before
then there is modernity, and everything happened before
is basically irrelevant. And globalization is simply
supposed to be simply an expansion of modernization to the globe, by pointing out that there was
Early Modern Globalization before modernity, before Western
hegemony it means the dynamic of Globalization cannot be
understood simply is a continuation of Western modernity. So the question is,
Globalization can only be defined in the most abstract
in general terms, precisely because if
you defined completely, you will define only part
of it, a period of it or one which is characterized by economic
or by politics or by cultures. So it can only be defined
in abstract in general terms is the
process through which the world, the entire globe becomes
a single place with increasing global connectivity
between peoples, societies, and cultures with humanity attaining
and increasing global consciousness. Now Globalization proper and that’s
why Early Modern Globalization begins only once the
circumnavigations of the globe in the early modern era
after 1492 made possible for the first time both
global connectivity and global consciousness. Of course there were
connectivity before all of Asia, in Africa had been connected for
millennia, certainly for centuries at least the Axial
age and the Axial age to a certain extent all the great
cultures already anticipated a global consciousness,
a global humanity, some kind of ethical universalism
or logical universalism. But this anticipation
only becomes a reality with precisely the
global connectivity and the global consciousness
made possible by the early modern
circumnavigations of the globe. Globalization therefore is a
process, a complex process, it cannot be reduced to any single
factor, an uneven process namely, it happens differently in
different parts of the globe at different rates, at different
times affecting differently different peoples, so it’s not
an even process across the globe, it is the multidimensional process. It can only be defined unlike,
neither is world capitalism or world geopolitics or simply
a world technology in the sense of mass media and is
experienced differently by different people
in different places. Therefore, when we use globalization
as an independent valuable to explain things, probably
we are not doing right. Normally globalization itself,
doesn’t produce anything, does not cost anything is only a
process the condition of conflicts within which all kinds of social
historical process takes place. So from these, it’s kind of a conceptual framework why
globalization, why the Jesuits, is there more interesting
questions, why the Jesuits? In the early modern era, they
serve as pioneer globalizers in a sense one can say that they
were the first organized group in history to think
and to act globally. If you can think of any other
group that they did before them, please let me know because
I have made this claim and nobody has ever
challenged this claim. So far no historian has
challenged this claim, that indeed, they were the first
organized group in history to think and to act globally. Arguably for over two hundred
years, from their foundation in 1540 to their papal suppression in 1773,
no other group contributed as much to the advancement of
global connectivity and global consciousness linking
the four quadrants of the world. They serve as primary brokers, in business speak they were
not themselves the ones that produced the process, they
serve as brokers linking North and South and East and West. And how did they do it? First of all, through their
ubiquitous missions, yes, we don’t have the map here but
just think of the coast of Japan, China going down all
the way Southeast Asia, Indonesia to the Mariana Islands
and then all the Indian ocean, the coast of India,
the coast of Africa and then all the to the Americas. Basically, they had global missions
everywhere from North America to South America, throughout
Africa, throughout Asia, basically one generation
after their foundation, but also through their
prodigious, production, and global circulation
of annual letters. They were prodigious letter writers, Ignatius himself really was the
greatest letter writer of his age, nobody has at least the letter
writing of nobody else has survived in so many volumes
as Ignatius letters. And he makes sure that his children, his spiritual children also
were prodigious letter writers, but they were also besides being
private letter writers they were very good in keeping all
these documents archiving them and archiving them and then
reproducing them, publishing them as public annual letters and
edifying mission reports. In addition to that
they were scientific and ethnographic describers
they were the first to a certain extent
ethnographers of the entire globe. They did geographic mapping of
most of the areas of the world. They held cartographic exercises
all the way from the Philippines to the Amazons, from China to North
America, astronomical observations, Clavius the great mathematician,
Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the teacher of all the first
generations of the Collegio Romano. He himself was a great
colleague [phonetic] to Galileo, Galileo had him as a greatest
astronomer of his time and basically he was the,
practically the person was in charge of the reform of the Gregorian
calendar, and the Jesuits who went to China and he help
precisely do the same kind of vision of the Chinese calendar. So also through the construction
of numerous scripts, lexicons and grammars of non-Western
languages. Again, whenever they
came to a region that had no scripts usually it would
be the Jesuit of the development of the scripts for many
of the native people. The Vietnamese script used today
in Vietnam is the script developed by Alexander de Rhodes
think of the Walani language which is a language basically
created by the Jesuits out of different dialects but
has remained the only language in Latin America which
is a spoken not Spanish. So in Paraguay the kind
of the successor nation to the Guarani reductions
although they least speak Spanish, the majority of the
population only speak Guarani so it’s the only Latin America
nation that was Christianized without being Hispanized
through the Jesuits. They also served, because they knew so many languages pioneered
comparative linguistics to the extent they invented what
later would become comparative linguistics the same way that
there was the first really comparative ethnographers. In this aspect they serve as
pioneer Global cultural brokers, through the translation of
classical Greek and Latin texts into non-Western language, Ricci translated Euclidean
geometric principles of geometry, would translate aphorisms
from Greek and Latin in his great most successful
book that he wrote in Chinese on friendship basically
from memory was able to reconstruct those
aphorisms and became because of that he became a great
also Confucian literatus. But also the translation of
non-Western classical texts into Latin, Chinese, the classical
Confucian Chinese texts were first translated by the Jesuits into Latin by several translations
first Ricci and many others. And it was this texts
then later was translated into every European language
that led to the great interest in Chinese affairs, let’s say
especially the 18th century the age in which China became the focus of
so many interests by philosophers, political theorists, especially
throughout the Enlightenment. But recessed Chinese also you have
the novella, the first translator of Sanskrit and Tamil languages
into Tamil text into Latin. Ippolito Desideri the
first translator of Tibetan classical text also. In this aspect, they serve
as pioneer orientalist, before Orientalism became a
discipline in the Western Academy at the end of the 18th century, early 19th century the Jesuits
had served for over a century as first Japanalogist, Baliniano
[assumed spelling] can said to be the first Western
expert on Japan, the first Ricci the sinologists,
the noble of the first Sanskrit, this would be the first otologist. But now only that of course in Latin
America they were not the pioneers because they came 50 years after
already the spiritual conquest of the Americans had taken place, but even there they
play a crucial role, will mention Jose Dacosta
specially through the production of catechisms, they
were no scientist, they were also primarily
missionaries. So the most important text they
were writing every other language, non-Western language was the
catechism, these was the age of course of the Catechisms. Luther’s Catechism was the one that really spread the Protestant
Reformation throughout Europe and out it came also the Catholic
catechisms, the Trent catechism of Trent and the Jesuits would
always precisely write catechisms for each culture accommodating
precisely these culture. There are simply copies
of Trent catechisms, they’re catechisms
written specifically for that particular culture
in every possible vernacular, but also through the global
circulation of all kinds of objects, scientific instruments from the
telescope, that they brought to China and the quadrant and
many other scientific instruments. They also brought of course
the science of candle making, they helped to make candles for the Chinese Empire the same
way they were making candles and fortifications during
the religious worlds for Catholics in Europe. So in these aspect, they
were not only missionaries and not only scientists but they
were also hard geopolitical realists helping also the kingdoms which
they were also serving as scholars. Printing presses, typist
script, they brought it of course this is the age
also of the printing press and they were able to fuse in
Asia, the European printing press and of course, the Chinese script
they had already their own printing press for centuries but they
were able to precisely use and fuse the two techniques to print
in all kinds of ancient languages but also in all kinds of
non-Western languages. Botanic plants, medicinal
plants, you may have heard of the Jesuit Bark, quinine. Quinine was called the Jesuit Bark
because it was they who brought it from Latin America and became
of course very important for the tropics everywhere,
sacred objects of all kinds that they distributed
throughout the globe. If you go to Latin
America to museums in sacred objects throughout
Latin America without in Mexico or in Peru you will find ivory
Jesus, baby Jesus’s ivory crosses from Manila made in
Manila by Chinese craftsman for the Catholic global markets. In the same way that today’s
Chinese do Christmas ornaments for the entire world
already the Chinese in Manila in Chinatown give Catholic
small sculptures for the entire global
Catholic market. Icons, paintings, and sculptures
these was probably the first age, global age of art in which you
have really the first intercultural encounters between Japanese
painting and Western painting. They brought of course
the techniques of Western painting including
obviously [inaudible], the word fails me now,
the Western techniques and they brought Japanese
and Chinese techniques. They brought the Western painting
techniques to the court in Beijing, but also to the [phonetic] but also to eastern Ukraine to
the Orthodox regions. Indeed, these people talked of
the global Jesuit baroque the kind of the first, again the first global
age of architecture you find all over the globe, but also
music, drama, and ballet. And music was central, it’s
important to understand that audiovisual modes of
communication was central in the Jesuit, mission in the
Jesuit, way of portraying the gospel and educating in the
schools, and music, drama, and ballet became central in the
education of the Jesuit colleges that we would see in a moment. You may think of French Ballet,
having been first invented in the Jesuit college
Rule Grande in Paris. It was there where French ballet
was born the same way the much of the Italian opera to precisely
was appropriated by Jesuits, the Jesuit drama and
then was globalized in Jesuit colleges
all over the world. You will have basically
presentations very close to Italian opera, in Goa, in Macaw,
in Lima, in Cuzco, and so on. So what explains their
success as pioneer globalizers, a combination of external
opportunity structures and internal institutional
and organizational advantages. Let’s look first at three main
external opportunities structures; First, the Iberian
Colonial Expansion, this was what made them global
missionaries, they were carried by Portuguese and Spanish
colonial ships. The Portuguese Padroado, the Padroado was the system
whereby the Catholic king of Portugal became the patron of the Catholic missions
throughout his empire in exchange for obviously sponsoring
the missions financially but of course missions helping
construct the Portuguese Empire. The same happened with the
Padroato Real of the Spanish Empire. So it was these two
the Padroado Portuguese and the Spanish Padroato
did together, because the Portuguese
control;ed the east indies through circumnavigating
Africa and all the way to India, Goa, Macaw, Melaka. In the Spanish controlled
the Americas all the way to the Philippines. So there were two global routes; one the Portuguese controlled
circumnavigating in Africa, the Spanish controlled the
route from Manila to Acapulco through Mexico City
through Veracruz, Havana, and from Havana to the Spain. And then so these circumnavigations
were made possible by these precisely the joining the
Spanish and the Portuguese Empires and very frequently, when letters
went from Rome to China or a letter from China to Rome they
would be sending precisely in several copies via the two
different routes to make sure that at least one of
them will reach there. So you have basically every letter from Rome will go one
circumnavigating Africa by the Portuguese, the other through
the Americans to the new world to Manila from there through
Japan and to China etc. Manila at a time was not the periphery off,
it was really the center of kind of network of communication
between China and Europe through the new world. It is a fantastic book of poems
by Bernardo de Balbuena 1605 in Mexico City, la
Grandesa Mexicana is a poem to how Mexico City is the
center of the globe, every idea, every product, every commodity, and human shows basically the
Mongol Empire, the Persian empire, the Chinese Empire, Japan, the
Ottoman Empire and products from all of these parts of the globe
all come through Mexico City. So again, Mexico City was not
a periphery of these global where in fact there was no
communication between Mexico City and China and there was
between Mexico City let’s say in northern Europe at the time
let’s say would later would become of course the main
carriers of globalization. So the Manila Ga Lyon was would
make possible the linking of east and west through the Americas
because it was these new world that make inter-global, there had
been of course a lot of connectivity in Euro or Afro Eurasia
connecting China, connecting what had been
Chinese civilization, Indian civilization and Islam. Up to the 15th century Islam
had been the carrier that kind of they one linking Asia, Africa
and Europe, it was now the emergence of the new world in the linking
all of these parts of the globe that of course made this possible. So the Jesuits were carried to
their missions by Portuguese and Spanish colonial ships. The great Jesuit missionary
of Brazil, Antonio Vieira, put it much more succinctly
in his Historia do Futuro, think of the title for the
book, Historia do Futuro and he was of course a visionary. He was an apocalyptic thinker and
thinking how the world is going to develop and I quote “if there
were not merchants who go to seek for earthly treasures in
the east and the west indies who would transport
[inaudible] the preachers who take heavenly treasures,
the preachers take the gospel and the merchants take
the preachers”. But what was interesting is that
the Jesuit preachers went beyond the limits of the Portuguese and the
Spanish Empires, to places in India, the Malawan [assumed
spelling], and in Japan to Kyoto, in China to Beijing, in Tibet where neither western merchants
nor colonialists had access. So it is not proper to simply
limit the Jesuit globalization to simply be carried by let’s say
global capitalism, because precisely where capitalism could
not enter, they were able to start precisely these
intercultural encounters and even within the Western Colonial empires
of the new world in the Americas, in new France, in new Spain,
in the veranato of Peru. Jesuit established missions in
the outskirts in different tiers of the empires where European
colonies did not settle, think of, of course of the most famous
Walani reductions in Paraguay but also the missions to the
Mapuche Indians in Chile, the missions to the Indians in Baha
California, of course the missions to the north American Indians all
the way from the Iowa to Milwaukee down the Mississippi to Louisiana. So the second external,
this was the golden age of Global Catholic missions. Jesuits were neither the only
nor the first Global Catholic missionaries, they
follow in the steps of other Catholic religious’
orders, Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians and others
who preceded them in the great global Catholic
missions of the 16th centuries. So I’ve already mentioned to
the Americans they came late, to Spanish America
they already reach in the 1570s almost 70 years
after, or at least 50 years after the spiritual conquest of the
Americas has already taken place and the same goes for the
Philippines, the same goes for Goa, the same goes for Macaw, but it is
precisely what made them unique. In this aspect, it was part of this
larger Global Catholic missions, this was the age in which
Catholicism became the first global world religion and
these we have to keep in mind 250 years before
the beginning of any continuous Protestant
missions, I mean the Protestant missions
only begins in earnest at the end of the 18th century and well before
John Wesley’s famous expression “I see the world as my parents.” You have Jerome Nadals, Jerome Nadal
was a very important for the most after Ignatius to the person
that was most influential in shaping the First
generation of Jesuits. He was probably the only person who met personally the first 1000
Jesuits at the death of Ignatius, he visited every Jesuit
providence, every Jesuit college, every Jesuit house
especially bringing the last of the constitution. In this aspect he contributed
more than anybody else to what could be called the
Jesuit esprit de corps and he, calling the famous the
slogan, the world is our home “Tutus mundus fit habitatio est.” But here is the once
our home in the context where he describes we
Jesuits have three houses, the house of the novices, the houses
of the professors, the colleges and then we have our fourth home,
our real world and it is this notion that the whole world, the globe is
our home is what precisely is what make them into Globalizers. Other Catholic orders had missions,
the Dominicans had missions, the Franciscans, but the
whole order was not defined as the mission of the order. The Jesuits were born
as a missionary order, the specific ministry of
the Jesuits was to be sent to missions upon entering
the Society of Jesus members took an oath to
be ready to be sent ad missionaries to any part of the world where
they could help souls particularly in the so-called New Indies. In this aspect, global mobility
was culturally encoded into the DNA of the Jesuit order
from its very inception. Two of the most controversial
organizational aspects of the new order; their abandonment
of the traditional monastic wire and the other religious
orders did not like the fact that they have broken with these and
not with neither the Curia in Rome or that they were not
heavily monastic communities, they didn’t dress in any
specific monastic habit but they could wear any habit
anywhere where they were. So these first and the second
therefore, their fourth specific vow of obedience to the
universal Bishop of Rome, precisely because he has the
jurisdiction to send them as missionaries universally
everywhere. So these two had their
origin precisely in these intentional
disposition to global mobility. Finally, the third
external structure which also has been
there 50 years before at least before the Jesuits emerged, the culture of Christian Renaissance
humanism, Ignatius has stayed in the montego [assumed spelling] of
college in Paris in the same college where Erasmus first and
later Calvin had to stay and of course Erasmus was the great
Christians Renaissance humanist of the time but also all of
the universities of the time where permeated by this culture
of Christian Renaissance humanism that then the Jesuits
incorporated into their colleges and of course they were
born as a missionary order, they became more famous
as educators, as teachers, as the first professional
school masters. In this aspect they were the
first Catholic teaching order or very other religious male and
female order just follow the Jesuit as being a teaching order by the first Catholic teaching
order were the Jesuits. In this aspect, they were also the
first transnational professional organization of school masters in a
sense they invented the profession. Teaching was not originally
envisioned as a particular Jesuit ministry
when they were founded in 1540, they have no intention of establishing any school although
they know the founders had degrees from University of
Paris, but establishment of the first Jesuit school
in Mussina Sicily in 1548 was to have dramatic repercussions
in the structure and the development of the order. The great historians, Jesuit historians John Ahmadi
[phonetics] called it the second foundation, it radically transformed
the order that only missionaries under move now they become
sedentary teachers in places. And it is out of this tension
or this combination of mission and college that the Jesuits as a
unique organization would be safe. And of course the dramatic growth of the society also accompanied
the growth of Jesuit colleges, it was through Jesuit colleges
that, the Jesuit order group and the growth allowed for
more colleges everywhere. Look at these figures, 1533 when
they had the oath in Mont Mart, in Paris the seven companions,
there were seven of them, when the order was established in
1540 there were ten founding members in Rome at the death of
Ignatius, sixteen years later. Later in 1556 already over
1000 members and 46 colleges, 20 years later, 25 year later
multiplication of members by five or 5000 members, colleges
like three over 144 colleges, 50 years later again multiplication
by three from 5000 to 15,000 and colleges by three 444
colleges by 1749 on the eve of their expulsion from
Portugal when it started there over 2000 members and over 800
colleges throughout Europe, the Americas and Asia. Most of them were in Europe but
they were several dozen College’s throughout the Americas and more than a dozen colleges
throughout Asia. What was uniquely distinctive
of the Jesuit college because at that time there were
Protestants of developing colleges in the Protestant territories. What was unique precisely
its global orientation which Stephen Harris the historian of science was called the
Jesuit geography of knowledge. An instruction from Ignatius,
he would tell his missionaries that he himself sent to send
all kinds of novel information because there’s a lot of
curiosity in Europe and, you know, if can be edifying
this curiosity can lead to edifying purposes as well. But of course the interesting
things that he was able to send that only a few week religious
information or even merchant of course and send also
intelligence information on business or on geology, excuse
me, on geopolitics. But the Jesuits precisely
because of the training they had as if you wish scholars as Renaissance humanists
they were ready to send data of natural historical geography,
demographic, ethnography, linguistic, artistic, all of these
data send from the missions from all over the world into the colleges in Europe was processed there
is the scientific information and was sent back to
all the colleges, the Jesuit colleges
reaching the missions. And it is these back and forth
between missions and colleges between missions in the Americas and
missions in Asia, between colleges in Europe and colleges in the
Americas and and Goa and in Macaw that is precisely turned the
Jesuits into pioneer globalizers. So it was these virtuous feedback
of Jesuit knowledge production between the global network of Jesuit
missions and the global network of Jesuit colleges what made the
Jesuits into pioneer globalizers. Again, there are so many
other things Jesuits were not so much originators as effective
global carriers of a wider culture of peace and universal humanism
that emerged out of the fusion of Aristotalian Thomaism
scholasticism and Renaissance humanism. The scholasticism of
the universities, the humanism of the Italian
colleges they were fused together in the Jesuit college that
had both this humanists and the scientific scholarly form,
and then crystallize in the school of Salamanca first Francisco de
Victoria was of course a Dominican so was Macuricano but
then [phonetic] who was the first Jesuit University
where much of this knowledge in which they used [phonetic]
would be developed further by Suarez and the others. So in this aspect through the prism of globalization one
can view the Society of Jesuit is the particular
crystallization or the world historical conjuncture or three interrelated processes
the [inaudible] expansion, the early modern Catholic
revival, and the culture of Christian Renaissance humanism. But of course those were
external opportunity structures and they were available
to many other groups, other groups do not take advantage
of these structures to turn into pioneer globalizers so you
have to find out what was the in the internal structures
of the Jesuit that allowed to play this role. And one could argue that it was
their peculiar character is an inner worldly activities and highly
mobile transnational religious order that occupied an interstitial role
between Imperial Catholic powers and the papacy, and in particular
three peculiar Jesuit institutional characteristics, Ignatius
spirituality, this is crucial for the formation of the
Jesuit as a person as itself. The peculiar combination of an ethic of critical self examination
discernment personal self abnegation and control dedication
to the service of others and to the common good. Again, is the first religious
order, that has written into its constitutions, had not
only for the greater glory of God, but for the common good, and the
colleges were not only to used to convert or facilitize
for the common good, the common good became
then a universal mission with clear distinctions between
the religious and the profane. An openness to the world seeking God
in all things, all of it grounded in the spiritual exercises of Ignatius these were the
paradigmatic Jesuit manual and technic of the self. In the aspect from the beginning until now every Jesuit is a
spiritual child of Ignatius. Basically reproducing internally
within itself the same process of transformation that Ignatius
found in these spiritual exercises. So what he produced is an
organization of self-directed and relatively autonomous
individuals that could be expected to be sent to any part of the
world where they were expected to reproduce faithfully the
peculiar Jesuit way of proceeding. It was obedience at long
distance, a lot of Inc. has been written about Paridi
Akadaba [assumed spellings] the fact that they’re supposed to obey as
their Ultimatons [assumed spelling]. But the fact is that when Ricci
got to China he was alone there and he had to make decisions what
is the Jesuit way of proceeding, how do I proceed as a Jesuit and
of course any question he sent to Rome took two years to get there and the answer will
another two years. So in the meantime he had to
find what is the Jesuit way of proceeding is, and of
course it is the famous method of accommodation that you
would say they start to build into the spiritual exercises. Because spiritual exercises from
the very beginning are written as a manual for the person that
keeps the spiritual exercises and asking the person to
accommodate the exercises to the specific spiritual
needs and characteristics of the person taking the exercises. So again, the very method of
the spiritual exercises is one of accommodation to the spiritual
particularity of the individual. The same goes, Ignatius would
send very specific instructions when you go there do that
and do that and do that, but after all once you get there, you know best how to
proceed our way. And this is in every
letter at the end after giving very precise directions
but ultimately, you will know best, you will have to use
your own judgment. Is this precisely unique form
of organizational structure and this is the second one, is a
hierarchy centralized organization with a highly flexible
managerial style and a global system
of communication. So it’s a novel and typically modern
organization system or structure, hierarchic and centralized
spelled out in minute details in the first written Constitution
before any state constitution, the Jesuit wrote a Constitution that
later became modern you could say for a lot of state
constitutions at least in the written form
of the structure. But accompanied by a
highly fixable mobile and pragmatic managerial style that
could accommodate the most diverse and unexpected local circumstances. In these pragmatic monetary style
was facilitated by highly developed and efficient global system of communications linking
all the Jesuit centers with one another including all the
regional and global peripheries to the Jesuit provinces and the
Roman Curia through the system of letter writing that was
communication of every Jesuit to is superior who wrote to his
superior who wrote and so on and so on and communication is not only
vertically but also horizontally across the global networks,
and finally it is global reach as a transnational and papal order. It is the autonomous structure
they were able to develop, is a papal order that claimed to
have universal jurisdiction anywhere but at the same time was sponsored
by different Catholic kings. So they were protected by the
Spanish king but wasn’t comfortable with the Portuguese king who
was protecting the Jesuits and the French king but precisely
because they were subject to so many different
jurisdictions they were to certain extent you
could say subject to none. And is autonomy that allowed them to
develop this you could say peculiar or project of globalization that
eventually would actually clash with what would become later the
hegemonic projects of globalization of Western centric hegemony
in the 19th century. But at least for two centuries they
developed a global organization that can be said to be
the first global NGO, the first global non-governmental
organization before the consolidation of the modern
Westphalian system of nation states. This was the source of their
autonomy, the unique project of globalization, we would take
us much longer to try to spill out how this project of
globalization was different from the ones that
eventually triumphed, but it was clearly this conflict
between the Jesuit project and the other parts of globalization
which eventually would triumph in the 18th and the 19th centuries
that led to their suppression, to their expulsion from every
country whether they had been famous and successful. Again, we don’t have time
here to follow the process of expulsion first from Japan and
then from China, then from Portugal, then from France, then from the
Spain to the final suppression by the Pope in 1773, but it
is by precisely reconstructing in the book I’m writing now by
reconstructing these expulsions and suppressions that one can
find what were the conflicts between the Jesuit
project of globalization and the other emerging interest. So with these let me ask,
I’m already taking too long, briefly globalization
through a Jesuit Prism. It was the intercostal
encounters and the Jesuit method of accommodation, that defines
precisely these particular form of globalization. This was an era before
Western hegemony, when this was not a world
system those were connected, interconnected histories nobody
can write the history of the globe in the 16 or the 17th century
because it has no center, they are connected history but
they are multiple histories. Western powers could not
subjugate the Mogul empire, the Chinese Empire, Japan, the
Ottoman Empire, the Persian Empire, so there was no western
hegemony in this. Tn which the Jesuit precisely
Served ts brokers connecting these different parts of
the world together. They themselves have not project
of hegemony, it was more a project of intercultural encounters, but it
is important to look at this model because it fosters a
revisionist perspective that perceives globalization that
triumphed, the modern globalization from 1979, 1789 to 1989 as a
particular phase of global history. The one with the Western hegemony
and is being succeeded today by a third novel form of
globalization we are entering, [inaudible] which shape is going
to take after Western hegemony. And the idea is we need to free
ourselves from the Eurocentric, Western centric, conceptual
of globalization to be open to the new postmodern,
post Western globalization that is emerging today. Valignano was the first one
who gave a kind of expression to this myth of accommodation. His famous saying, “our task is
not to Portugalize the Chinese but to make Christianity Chinese.” Again I don’t have the time to here
to go into detail but we must see that Jesuits as Renaissance
humanists that have made Saints of the pagan philosophers, Saint
Cicero, Saint Cenica, Saint Shocatis and that come to these
other cultures and can make Saint Confucius
because what Ricci found out is that actually, and this was
his point, Chinese culture, without revelation has reached
a level of natural law ethics in the conception of the
cosmos of the universe which is basically almost in perfect
tune with the bio-revelation. So they came the closest, much closer than the pagan
philosophers we’ve made sense. So much more we could made
Confii into Saint Confucius, Confucius of course is a
name invented by Richie but is the way we know Confucianism
everywhere but it was and invention, it was a manufacturing of Richie
there is a huge book manufacturing Confucianism, how Richie basically
came to his interpretation of Confucianism trying to
convince [foreign language] that their own interpretation
was wrong, my interpretation of Confucianism is the one really
close to [foreign language] and you should follow it. We can argue about which
interpretation was better or closer to the origins, the point is that
there is a certainly willingness to argue, they call
themselves apostle to the Gentiles, they same as Paul. It is not by chance that every
Jesuit college in Goa, in Macaw, in Japan, in Cuzco, in Lima,
are called San Pablo, St. Paul, because they saw themselves as
following doing for the new globe for the new world what San
Paul did for the Gentiles and San Paul could go to the
europagos [assumed spelling] in the Athens and talk
of the unknown god. This with Ricci was doing in China
and is what the Jesuits were doing in India, and in Tibet,
and the idea was if Christianity was originally
Hebrew or Aramaic, Jews, had to become Hellenic and had to
become Latin in two different forms, Hellenic Greek Christianity
and Latin Christianity. There is room for Japanese
Christianity, Chinese Christianity
Indian Christianity and Christianity can’t become
a universal religion truly, if it becomes enculturated, incarnated in every
particular culture. It is this separation between this
conception of universal religion that has no culture, plural
religion and particular cultural and of course any sociology this is
the key distinction between religion and culture of the division of
religious studies in sociology and anthropology of religions
how these differences of religion and culture took place. Well it took place first in China
when Mathew Ricci decided which part of Chinese culture where see customs
therefore not idolatrous rights and as such would become
Christianized. So the need to differentiate which
part of culture is just culture and which part of culture
is religion that leads precisely to
this differentiation. What happens was that
differentiation with the Jesuits in China made brought to
Europe and there Voltaire, Lignus and the others said fine you
say the Chinese culture is almost ready before revelation. We don’t need revelation gives us
Chinese culture without revelation, so the project of the enlightenment
is to appropriate Chinese culture to precisely bring enlightenment to
Europe getting rid of revelation. But this Conflict of formation
called the Chinese rights eventually the conflict led to
secularization of culturing to that this Christianization
of culture in Europe, but basically the first
step is first the separation of cultural rights which are
purely cultural and those which are the religion therefore
idolatrous and therefore cannot be. And this was with the whole Malava
rights and Chinese rights was all about and of course it led to
a big conflict between the pope and the Chinese Emperor, between the
French King and all the religious that Jesuit eventually bringing
to an end the Jesuit as an order. But it is these controversial
formula of Jesuit cultural accommodation
maybe let me answer these, let’s go back. So cultural accommodation we must
again because sometimes it is that all the scanning Jesuit look, they were proselytizing that’s
why they invented this method, no. The method was not invented by
Europeans, the method was pushed by the locals after the
European missionaries, it was the Japanese [phonetic] look,
you cannot try to Portugalize us, if you want to succeed here, if you
want to have a serious encounter with us, you have to dress
like us, wash yourself like us, eat like us, become Japanese. And Ricci who came to China
as a Buddhist monk was told by his friends, no
abandoned this habit and adduct the Confucian
habit, so it was these, it was always the locals
that told the Jesuits, so accommodation was not in kind of
an intellectual strategy developed by the Jesuits, it was
a practice that emerged out of the intercultural
encounter itself. And this is the famous in
controversial form of accommodation but the Ricci to avoid the
habitus of Confucian literatus, in china [inaudible] in
India Jesuit introduction to Paraguay to avoid [phonetic]. But also the least commendable
accommodating habitus of a slave owner in the Jesuit
slave plantation in Maryland. In Maryland they have largest
of [inaudible] plantation which financed my university
Georgetown college you know all the controversy in the last
two years about slavery and Georgetown how even when they
saw the slaves they [phonetic] and emancipated the slaves
but actually sold them to finance precisely
Georgetown University in Brazil. And of course then this brings
the question of what is cultural that should be incorporated into
universal humanity, human rights and which parts of culture
perhaps is incompatible with the sacred unity
of the human person and therefore needs
to be left behind. We have these discussions today about how universal
are our human rights, how much we should simply
accommodate genital cutting in Africa because it’s an old
cultural custom of Africa, so which part of culture are to
become universalizable as part of humanity in which
[inaudible] in conflict with, what we would call
today human rights. So it was a differentiation
of two universal religions in particular cultures, first
introduced by the Jesuits as well as they became civilization idolatry by the law the various
accommodating syntheses or supposedly global universalism
and local cultural particularism. This is the key to the Jesuit
formula of localization, a formula which was very much
attacked by everybody in the Rome, in Paris and by Jesuits themselves. Let me and simply give
you an illustration of the intercultural encounter the
Jesuit perhaps the pragmatic one by looking at the map, it is a
map, the majority will map the copy of which one of them is here
at the library of Congress, as you can see there are six prints
whatever you call them in Chinese. And what is interesting
of this map is, it is neither Sinocentric
nor Eurocentric, so this map maybe together
between the European and Chinese and somehow what came of it is
that neither China is the center of the world as they were convinced that they were nor Europe
was the center of the world. Europeans were convinced
they were so the center of the world dividing east and west
is somewhere West of Japan going down the Pacific Islands you will
not discover yet Australia Oceania because they hadn’t been
discovered and the east is the west, the Americas are at the east
and all of the old world. So the new world is the east,
the new world is the west and this sense it centers both
Eurocentrism and Cino-centuries and it avoided, it is a
map that fuses the west and cartographic techniques and
Chinese cartographic techniques, you cannot read it there,
but the map is full of text, the Chinese maps have a lot of
text telling you about each region of the world, how, so you
have again, I cannot read it but I was a fantastic exceeding
the reaching Institute in China and the Asian society
in San Francisco. In San Francisco and there was
the translation of all this text, if anything this is the map
that the Chinese adapted, is the map that gave them
the vision on the world of the new world before the
world they new and for 200 years, for 300 years these can map
itself we have done revision later but it is not another
Jesuit with update this map. But basically this map will serve as
the map for China, Korea and Japan until the end, until the middle of
the 19th century, this was the map of the world the Chinese,
Koreans and Japanese used as precisely world maps
and of course it happen that Matthew Ricci had to come up with Chinese names
for every European city. So most of the names
the Chinese used today for European cities are basically
names that Matthew Ricci invented to such an extent,
right, phonetically help to transliterate let’s say European
cities into Chinese characters, but it is not only that really,
it was a world of communication, collaboration between several
Chinese and Matteo Ricci. So it was not Matteo Ricci bringing
Western science to the Chinese, it was these precise encounter
and he was characteristic of also of his books and friends which I
have already mentioned the aphorisms which was the way in which, again
from memory I’m sure your familiar with the classic by Spence the
memory palace of Matteo Ricci and of course in the
consulate of the Chinese in which memorizing it’s
extremely highly regarded, he almost everybody was all
by the ability of Matteo Ricci in these they could have as
[phonetic] where basically read them and take in Chinese and he would
be able to basically read it back from the last character
to the first character. But it was the kind
of in this catechism, the way he basically integrates kind
of Confucian cosmology and vision of the world and the Chinese and
the in the Western cosmologist that comes up of creationism. But the same way we
could say of many others: Jose Dacosta in the Americas, he’s
the author of the catechism of Lima but for being the catechism
of Lima was written in Latin and translated simultaneous
to Spanish, Guarani, excuse me [phonetic],
[phonetic], because he said to become Christians the natives
of southern America don’t need to become to be Hispanized, his
notion to become Christian need to be Hispanized therefore
they need to Europeanized. You have to Christianize or or
you have to Guaranize Christianity and this is what I mentioned
before of the Walanise, anyhow the Jesuits served as pioneer
interlocutors in the religious, cultural, scientific, and artistic
encounters between East and West, and between the old, the new worlds
in the early modern global era, and as we are entering the
multipolar, the decenter world in which we have to become again
able to enter a communication with other forms of
thinking, which are forms of considering the human person
with other models of democracy with other models of organization of
the common good and the good life. I think that the lessons
of the Jesuit in the early modernity are still
there but they find solutions but we don’t have solutions
our self either. What is still struggling within the
same conflict within universality and particularity between globality
and locality, the day we struggle with and so is not that they, that
have given us the modern and how to become global today
but at least it helps us to perhaps de-center our own
Western-centric modern conception of where the globe is going
to look in 50 years from now. Thank you very much. [ Applause ] [ Inaudible Speaker ] [ Background Noise ] It is too much overwhelming,
I’m sorry.>>Edward Widmer: The
love of Jesuit here, maybe the Jesuits may have some
questions, some objections.>>Well, thank you very much,
say for this fascinating lecture. Many, many questions
but one that stands out is contemporary discussions of
globalization there is often a focus on the tendency of globalization
to flatten, standardize, homogenize the cultures of the
world and I was strut in listening to your lecture about this
early modern instantiation of globalization that, there
is going to be a tension still between the reproduction as you
put it of Jesuit institutions and isomorphic reproduction which
implies you notice this kind of replication of the
same structure globally and similarly also the replication
of the Jesuit way of proceeding, and on the other hand the kind
of relativism, syncretism, accommodation of other cultures,
languages etc. into the very fold of Christianity and I’m wondering if you could speak
more to that tension. I mean isn’t there still a
standardization at work perhaps in this process, I would be
very curious to hear all about.>>Jose Casanova: There is always
of course, I use the college and isomorphic because you
may be familiar at this time for the school of globalization. This is about quality
that basically ask itself within that the nation’s
history is of forms but the fact that these forms are re-created
everywhere throughout the world isomorphic is and indication that each nation is study
simply basically a receiver of the world politic
which is above all of us and the argument I’m making is
for this world politic to emerge, these world of society somebody
has to contribute and one of the primary, of the most
important institutions has been reproduced isomorphic
clean around the world is of course the University and
the college and they worry to pick somebody who is able to
take these institutional form and make it their own and then
reproduce it isomorphically. And in this aspect there
are elements already of these the standardization
there, but I’m more interesting when the others were trying
to standardized by entering through the dialogue and
[phonetic] these were of course what they were accused
of I mean if you read Pascal, Pascal the [phonetic]
letters he just making fun of these Jesuits have no principles,
they’re simply are willing to accommodate anything
for whatever. And so the notion of that they
been actually moral relativists with no principle, well of course
we would call them today moral contextualists, they realize
it was principles have to be apply accommodated in each
particular context in its own way and the same goes with
in other the [phonetic] of course the French Catholic
[phonetic] were the most, the first and some of the most radical
critics of the Jesuits and a friend of Pascal [phonetic] in his
famous Catechism de Jesuit, basically calls them
hermaphrodite religious order. Hermaphrodite because they are
neither religious nor secular, it is the first definition of [phonetic] they simply don’t
accept these differentiations between the religion
and the secular. They are scientists, and
they are cartographers, and they are musicians,
and they construct canons, and anything they want to be basically find God
in all things, right. It is these which of course made
them in the one other hand pioneers because they are out
of this impulse, they are the proto scientist,
the proto astronomers, the proto everything but later
modern science would take over and then would develop these
in a most standardized form that imposes the Western
form of logic and of Western metaphysical
conceptions, which today we are
in the process of. Again in a sense being
challenged in someplace, we have no idea how let’s say
once India and China emerge truly as a global powers, they may
challenge our own conceptions, anthropology or the conception of
the south, the wheel, you know, transmigration of source, I mean
they are [phonetic] they had in India and in China in the
17th century with Buddhists, with Hindus about transmigration of
souls of the south of the free will and basically those are issues that any contemporary global
philosophy will have to take into account that we cannot simply
dictate Western considers of the, anthropologically concepts
of the South, considers of the will
cannot be simply globalized in a homogenizing form, but we
have to adapt other cultures. So in this aspect, I think there
are issues that certainly if we are to multiculturalism in the high
level of integration of world views from other civilizations. If you are going to think of it global let’s say [foreign
language] liberal arts humanities education which incorporates
not only Western Classics but all the classics of humanity and
experience of all human cultures, then obviously it cannot
be a standardized method, it has to be one which
integrates through dialogue, very different currents into
perhaps not a fully synthetic maybe [phonetic] but nonetheless while
using corporates all these visions of humanity. Yes>>Edward Widmer: It’s
a century time for the reception I have a
question it’s a very long question. So I think I might ask
my question privately, but does anyone have a
brief question for José? I’m sure that, we can
all ask at the reception. So on that note why don’t
we conclude the question and answer and go to the reception. Thank you, thank you Jose
for a wonderful talk.>>Jose Casanova: Thank you so much>>This has been a presentation
of the Library of Congress. Visit us @LOC.gov.

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

Related Post