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Cartographic History of Afghanistan: Early, Modern and Colonial Periods


>>Joan Weeks: Well
good afternoon everyone. I’m very happy and very pleased
to give the little introduction to this program this
afternoon, and on behalf of all my colleagues
in the African and Middle Eastern
Division, the Asian division, and the geography
and maps division, I’d like to extend a very
warm welcome to everyone. I’m Joan Weeks, I’m the
assistant chief in the African and Middle Eastern Division,
and we’re very pleased to present this program on
the cartographic history of Afghanistan: the
modern and colonial periods by Dr. Shah Mohammad Hanafi. But before we start
today’s program and introduce our speaker, I’d like to give you a brief
overview of these divisions and the resources in the hopes
that you’ll return and come back and use the collections. The Ahmed, or African and
Middle Eastern Division, is a custodial division which
means we house the collections. It’s comprised of three
sections that build and serve the collections to
researchers around the world. We cover over 78 countries in
more than two dozen languages. The Africa section
includes all the countries of sub-Sahara Africa; the
Near East section covers all of the Arab countries
including North Africa and the Middle East, Turkey,
Turkic Central Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, Armenia,
and Georgia; the Hebraic section is
responsible for Judaic and Hebraica worldwide. And our reading room, I want to
tell everyone, is located on, its new location on the second
floor of the Jefferson building; you take the elevators
as though you were going to the main reading
room, and then get off at the second floor, and walk
through the rare book offices to the northeast pavilion. The Asian reading room
provides access to more than four million items in
over 133 ancient languages such as Chinese, Japanese,
Korean, Tibetan, Hindi, Thai, and many others. In the reading room researchers
can use Asian division collections of printed
materials, micro formed databases, and
confer with reference librarians to answer research questions
about the countries of East, and South, and Southeast Asia. And their reading room is
located on the first floor of the Jefferson building
just off the Great Hall, down a corridor passed the
congressional reading room. The geography and map
division provides cartographic and geographic information
for all parts of the world to Congress, federal agencies,
state, and local governments, and the scholarly community, as
well as to the general public. It is the largest and most
comprehensive cartographic collection in the world
numbering over 5.2 million maps. And I’m going to reference
works globes they have all sorts of multimedia formats, plastic
relief models, and all sorts of interesting formats
for geographic materials. I’d also like to invite you to
try out our four corners blog with special post by our
Hispanic, European, Asian, African Middle East
division specialist; as well as follow
us on Facebook. That way you’ll get to
learn about new programs that we’re going to be
offering in the future. And I would also
like to remind you that this program
is being videotaped and if you ask questions
at the end, you’re implicitly
giving us permission to use your voice
in the recording. And now I’d like to
invite Cynthia Smith to give us a little
overview, continued overview, of the geography
and map division. Thank you. [ Applause ]>>Cynthia Smith: Okay,
I’ve brought about six maps from our holdings, and these
are mainly 19th century maps and to deal with [inaudible]. Okay, I’m going to
briefly describe each one of them as they come up. They’ll be up here shortly. Let me just advance it a
little bit to get there. Okay, the first one is from
1879, and it was published by the Corps of Engineers,
the US Army. And the title, seat
of war in Asia, refers to the second
Anglo-afghan war. It lasted two years,
it was triggered because the British were worried
about the Russian influence in Afghanistan and they sent
40,000 troops to to Afghanistan; they were defeated two
years later in 1880. There was a — okay the
second one is from 1855. And this was a year the
Treaty of Peshawar was signed between England and Afghanistan. The British, again, were worried
about the Russian influence and their movement southward,
and the Treaty of Peshwa agreed for Great Britain and
Afghanistan to be friends of each other’s friends, and
enemies of each other’s enemies. Okay, the next one
is a panoramic view from the Indus River region
to the Russian territories, and it shows two
British soldiers in the lower right-hand
corner overlooking the Indus River region. It was published by the
Letts Company in London, and they were a company that
produced stationery and diaries. Okay, this one was
published in 1893 by Hunton Eaton, an
American company. 1893 Is a year the
Durand Line was drawn by Sir Mortimer Durand,
[inaudible] civil servant and the ruler of Afghanistan
at the time Abdul Rahman Khan. It cut through Pashtun
tribal areas and caused a lot of conflict between
Afghanistan and British India, and later Afghanistan
and Pakistan. Okay, this is of a
historical region in Afghanistan, Kafiristan. It was published in 1881 by
the Stanford company in London for the Royal Geographic
Society. Kafiristan’s in the
eastern part of Afghanistan, it was later named
Nuristan in 1906. This is of the Helmand
River region, and famous British
geographer Sir Robert Marcum, it was prepared for
a report that he gave to the Royal Geographical
Society, and months later the map was
published in their proceedings. I think I’m going to turn
this over to Hirad now. We have the four of
the maps over there, and the one of the
second Anglo-afghan war, and the panoramic view
up here for you to view.>>Hirad Dinavari:
Thank you, Cynthia. Everyone thank you very much
for making time and coming. This is a wonderful joint
collaborative effort here between three divisions
as you see. And if you bear with me,
I’m going to quickly try to get the PowerPoints to work. For some reason it doesn’t
seem to escape, here we go. Before I start, I also want
to thank Dr. Mary-Jane Deeb, our former chief for actually
coming here in attending, this is a great honor
to have you here. I am going to focus
on Afghanistan from the prism essentially of
linguistic and cultural sort of maps, and how it
kind of connects to the, what we call the Iranian
world, or Iranic world. The reason why is there
is still some confusion for many how Afghanistan
fits or doesn’t fit. It’s crucial to sort of
look at the language map, here I have two language
maps for you. This is a map of all the various
Iranic languages presently in today in the world. In the western side, in
sort of a brown color, you’re seeing the
Kurdish region to the west and then the brown is the
Persian, blue is Pashto, and then green is Balochi; those are the four
main major languages. And as you see the brown for
Persian sort of bleeds into, from Iran into Afghanistan
up into Central Asia. This map is also interesting because it showcases
the dialects of Persian; you have the darker
green for Farsi which is what what is the name, the language is referred
to in Iran. And in Afghanistan they have
the sort of a lighter green which is, in Afghanistan they
also refer to the language as Dari, and in Central Asia
it’s referred to as Tajiki, or sometimes Tajiki,
sometimes Farsi. So, the language has
three regional names and the goal really here is
to show you the widespread of the language family. And I also want to speak as far
as how Afghanistan connects. This is a great map because
it shows you the vastness, yet the focus on
the region as well. Afghanistan has played
a major role in Iranian or Persian identity for
various epochs and periods; both in the pre-Islamic context
as well as the post-Islamic. In the pre-Islamic
contexts, there’s some debate but it’s believed
that Zoroastrianism and Zoroaster comes from the
region that is now eastern Iran, Khorasan, and Afghanistan,
and that’s the area that you see right here on the
northern side of Afghanistan. The languages today that
resemble closest to Avesta, or the language of
Zoroastrian texts, are the premier languages
there’s dark blue patch that you see in there,
and Pashto. Pashto and Pamiri are the
closest to Old Persian and they’re part of the Eastern
branch of Iranian languages. And Iranian languages
do you have an eastern and western branch,
and the funny thing is that the Eastern branch, one group of it is essentially
the Pashto and Pamiri are in the East, but the other
essentially East Iranian, languages Ossetia or Oset,
which is up in the Caucasus between Georgia and
Russia, up on top. So, it’s interesting to see
how the Eastern dialects or Eastern forms of Iranian
languages are spread out. And this also ties in with
the civilization as well. Pashto identity or Afghan
identity has played a crucial role in pre-Islamic times
for a couple of reasons; the Achaemenid Persians,
the Parthian Persians, the Sasanians looked
east, often. They were familiar with the
West, but they looked east; all their lore, they refer
to lands of the Rising Sun; there was talk of
Khorasan, of Meerasan. Khorasan and Meerasan is
essentially what is now Afghanistan and Central Asia. And there is a fascination
with China and India, and the eastern most
frontier to access that was what is now
Afghanistan and Central Asia. So, you have that
interesting dynamic where the eastern lands played
an interesting buffer role and it’s in these same regions that you also have
the development of very interesting hybrid
cultures, the Kushans, the Bactrian, and Sogdians. The Kushan brought in, they had
Greek influence from the time of the Parthians and
Alexander, but they mixed it in with the native
Zoroastrian along with the Indian Buddhist
tradition and you have these wonderful
Kandaharian and Kushan style of Buddhism, which is
an interesting hybrid of this region. In the post Islamic period, it’s
no secret that the western part of Iran or what is now farce
was referred to as a Raja Ajamu, or Persian speaking
Iraq, if you like. The eastern region, Khorasan, is
where Persian comes back to life in what is now Khorasan
and Afghanistan. And from the 7th, 8th century,
what is now Central Asia and Afghanistan, Rudaki,
and then Ferdowsi, and all these great poets
starts in this region. So, Afghanistan plays a
major role in the formation of what is Islamic Persian
language and civilization. This continuity continues all
the way until you get to the 18 and 1900 and with the
coming of the Safavids in Iran there is a schism where the western
regions become Shiite and the eastern regions
become Sunni, remain Sunni, and you have the afghan
invasion, if you like. I don’t see it as an
invasion I said as a riot, because the Afghans
at the time were part of this larger Safavid
world, they were rebelled against the central
government and sacked Isfahan. So, from then on eighteen,
nineteenth century is where you have it distinctly,
clearly Afghan identity, and more and more
so Pashtun identity. So, it to give you
an Iranian context, the Afghan world is integrally
part of the Iranian world, is seen as something that
is connected to the core yet there is a regional
dynamic that is also very rich, often being a right on the
location wise where it is, a place in which influences from
the east, be it India, or China, or Central Asia,
and later Turkic and Mongol dynasties also
come in through this side, through the east,
all of this happens in this richly complex region
that is today Afghanistan. So, from here I’m going to
turn it over to John Loar, our Indian specialist, so he
will give you the Indian context of how how Afghanistan connects. Thank you.>>Jonathan Loar: And likewise,
welcome to everyone here today. My name is John Loar, I’m the
Asian divisions representative here as the reference
librarian for South Asia, which includes countries like
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
and the Maldives. And as someone who’s
within the field of South Asian Studies
I’m really excited to have our speaker
Dr. Hanifi here today because his work really
represents some new and important connections
between the two fields of South Asian Studies
on one hand and Afghanistan Studies
on the other. So, at the Library of Congress,
the South Asian collection in the Asian reading room
is the public gateway to access quite literally
hundreds of thousands of materials that are in Hindi,
Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Sindhi, Marawi, Marwari, Nepali;
a bunch of languages, South Asian languages, from
India and as well as the rest of the South Asian region. And of course, we invite
everyone here today to come and explore our collections in
our reading rooms and contact us through email through our
ask a librarian service with any questions
about our collections. Most of our collection, or
most of our acquisition comes from two overseas offices; one
in New Delhi, India established in 1962, and the
other in Islamabad, Pakistan established in 1965. And the Islamabad office
is also instrumental in the routine acquisition
of materials from Iran, and from Afghanistan as well. And often times I think we think
of these countries, you know, there’s Afghanistan, there’s
Pakistan, there’s India as existing in these separate
silos that kind of exists, kind of distinctly
from one another. And we almost sometimes,
we might even think of our divisions
that way as well; there’s the Asian division, there’s the African-Middle
Eastern division. But one of the things that
I really enjoy about working at the Library of Congress
are events like these which really allow
for the collaboration across multiple divisions,
so that we can see South Asia and Afghanistan represented
across the library, so that I can learn
about maps that we have in Cynthia’s division
in geography and maps, and we can also work
with Mughal scholars, scholars of Mughal
India who come to mine and Hirad’s reading rooms. And this all really
relates to the excitement for today’s lecture
by Dr. Hanifi, because his work brings
together both Afghanistan and the geographic
region of South Asia. And from the vantage point
of South Asia studies, there’s a great deal of
engagement with Afghanistan in terms of the classical
or the ancient period, for example the ancient
Buddhist region of Gandhara. And of course, in the modern
context Afghanistan figures importantly in, you know,
geopolitical affairs, the study of economic ties between different
states in the region. But what Dr. Hanifi’s work
really adds is historical depth to this relationship, and he
really focuses on that period of time of South Asia’s colonial and immediately post-colonial
period. And it’s all the more
engaging I think that his work as we’ll see today is
so visually compelling, drawing on a selection
of maps that are produced from the perspective
of colonial India and other areas throughout
the world; and that his work especially
his most recent work draws on the work of Mountstuart
Elphinstone, a major figure in colonial Indian history. And maps are really
interesting objects in and of themselves, right? Because they attempt to tell us
something; where borders are, where the border begins, where
it ends, people who belong in those borders, or who
don’t belong in those borders, but it’s also something
that calls to mind the religion scholar
Jonathan C Smith’s axiom that a map is not territory. Which for a talk like
today we might think of a map is something that’s
produced by human hands that has human agendas
wrapped into it and really can also reveal as
much as it conceals as well. And I think Dr. Hanifi’s
work really kind of brings that to the forefront. Which leads me to
introduce our speaker for today Dr. Shah Mahmoud
Hanifi is professor of history at James Madison
University in Harrisonburg, Virginia where he
teaches courses on the Middle East
and South Asia. Dr. Hanifi’s research addresses
subjects like colonial, political economy, the
Pashto language, photography, cartography, animal and
environmental studies, and also Orientalism in
the context of Afghanistan. His first book, Connecting
Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations
and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier,
was first published as a Gutenberg ebook, and
then published in 2009 by Stanford University Press. And his second most recent
book, Mountstuart Elphinstone in South Asia: Pioneer of British Colonial Rule
was just published this year by Oxford University Press. And Dr. Hanifi will be on
hand after today’s lecture with copies of connecting
histories for purchase and for signing. So, let’s all give
him a warm welcome and learn some about
Afghanistan. [ Applause ]>>Shah Mahmoud Hanifi: I’m
glad you’re here to help. Well, I have to say how grateful
I am for all of the units that have supported
this opportunity for me to share some, a bit
of my work with you. I’ve known Hirad for
many years and he’s been such a wonderful
supporter for Afghanistan, and we have a really great kind
of moment in time where a number of PhD students are literally
getting their degrees this summer and many of them
have worked here with Hirad. John is also a great supporter
for things I’ve got related to Afghanistan, and I just
appreciate his general sensibilities and also
wherewithal when it comes to Afghanistan from the
South Asian perspective. And to Cynthia I have to say
how grateful I am for your time and your effort to bring up
these maps for the audience, and I’ve been enjoying myself
most recently this last year in the geography and maps
division and just am overwhelmed at the number of resources and
my job here today is to try to share some of them with you. It’s a special pleasure
to have Mary-Jane Deeb in the audience who’s
really also been such a long-term
supporter of Afghanistan. I’m very grateful for all the
administrative layers of support that it takes to bring
something like this together. So, it’s just absolutely
appropriate that Afghanistan works in
a kind of synergistic way between different regions and
units because that is the key to understanding
the environment; that is multiple
different perspectives. It’s critical not to
isolate the country in terms of understanding it
on its own terms. To understand Afghanistan, you need to understand
its relationships to its surrounding environments,
and this is a great opportunity to sort of elaborate on that. It’s a really special
moment also for a couple of different
reasons. First of all, Eid Mubarak,
it’s a wonderful auspicious day to have Eid al-Fitr on
this, on this moment, and it really highlights how
important Islam is in the sort of mapping of Afghanistan
as we’ll see today. Really brought Afghanistan into
a new epistemological terrain, I’d like to say a
few words about that. But it’s also very curious
because 1919 was the date of Afghanistan’s independence
which makes 2019 the centennial of Afghanistan independence, which is such an also
very interesting moment to have this opportunity. And in terms of, not
anniversaries as much as recognition, or
sort of reflecting on the Soviet invasion
of Afghanistan in 1979, this is a really, it’s sort of
a big year for some particular, to give some historical
conjunctures a sort of second look in
a number of ways. So, part of my job here
today is to expose you to the wide assortment
of maps of Afghanistan and the surrounding region
through a long stretch of time, and it’ll be sort of an
Eid feast for your eyes in that sense, because I will be
going through a lot of images. That’s mainly to just sort
of do some sort of respect to the sources that are held
here at the Library of Congress. So, the progress through those
images will be sort of slow and then will move a little
bit faster as we get going. So, I appreciate your your
patience and then your tolerance for the speed at which
we’re going to go. So, what I’d like to do
is try to give you a sense that my interest is really as
maps as Imperial projections. And it’s really that frame of
reference that makes Afghanistan so well mapped; because it seems like almost every Empire that’s
ever existed has had some mapping interest in Afghanistan. And of course, that’s
probably an over-exaggeration but we have a wide assortment
of maps; American maps, British maps, French maps,
German maps, Italian, Prussian, Russian; it really
is kind of unending. The mapping of Afghanistan as a project that’s continuing
aggressively as we speak. So, my focus is really to
bring the British colonial, Imperial perspective to bear
on this subject of mapping, and in that sense, I’m
really sort of concerned with what’s happening in
India, that is British India, as well as the kind
of Imperial metropole, that is London, and England. So, in many ways my work on maps
is reflected in the two books that I’m just so happy are here,
and we will see a quite a bit from both of those
books in due course. And I I’m sorry we couldn’t
have the second book available for you here today, but there is
a discount flyer that’s floating around if you’re interested. It’s a benefit of
sharing sometime today. So, broadly, I just want to
say that maps can be approached from a number of
different perspectives, certainly the artistic
and aesthetic perspective. But, there’s a large sort of set of different knowledge
formations that come to bear on maps; lots of different
sciences and interests. And, so, really, we can
look at maps as sort of cultural products,
as textual products, as geographic reference
points; but the key really is that the reliance on maps
and the sort of emphasis on maps is a condition of modernity is what I’d
kind of like to argue. And the coming of the modern
age brought with it a new kind of mapping impulse that is
around nation-states and kind of borders and boundaries, whereas in the pre-modern era
it’s more about mapping regions, maybe even ecologies
and climates. So, there’s really,
quite a substantive shift between pre-modern and modern
maps, and if we are able to pull it off, I’d like to
think about another discussion of shall we say national
mapping in Afghanistan; that is Afghanistan’s mapping of its own terrain
in the 20th century. But, when we talk about
maps and imperial mapping, we have to kind of remember
modernity raises a fundamental question about empires. And what is standing in
the way as empires seek to achieve their goals? And in that way maps become
central to the Imperial process, and the conceptual
point to note is that maps really
pre-figure conquest. It’s not that you can’t a place
and then map it, the argument is that maps, sort of a progressive
impulse to map is a big part of the process of conquest. And so, we have to be
um really respectful for the wonderful knowledge
formations the beauty of these maps, but they
are tools of power, they are Imperial products, and in sort of a very basic way
they are used to kill people in some sort of way that in the
modern era we see some reactions against maps and over
mapping our movements, and facial recognition,
and these kinds of — again mapping in modernity; there seems to be a real
important relationship here. So, what I want to
do is, by necessity, sort of choose my my
sides of Afghanistan; and I will begin really coming
at Afghanistan from the West, that is through Iran and Islam. Later in the talk, we’ll
look at sort of colonial and imperial mapping through
the British, and British India, but the sort of progress of
the talk then will be kind of uneven here; I hope
to get to the first and second war material
sooner rather than later. But what we need to recognize
now as we begin to move is that these boundaries
of Afghanistan, through which we
recognize the country today, took shape during
the colonial era. In the last third
of the 19th century, there were different boundary
processes in the east, west, north, and south, that involved
the Persians, the Ottomans, the Russians, the
British, and Afghans. And so, this map that
we must look at as to some extent constructed
not artificial but definitely constructed
through the agency of Imperial and colonial powers; and
that leads us to conclude that Afghanistan itself in many
ways came into sort of being through colonial agency. At the same time,
we can appreciate that Afghanistan’s relationship
to colonialism was kind of uneven; people have called
it a para-colonial environment, not fully colonized,
not fully independent. I prefer the word
crypto-colony, I see Afghanistan as a crypto-colony, where
it’s very deep past, and I really do want to emphasize Afghanistan
has a deep past. But a very sort of shallow
or thin historiography. There’s a deep past with
the shallow history, and one of the reasons
for that is because Afghanistan
is a zone of mobility. Historically, that
region of Afghanistan that we can see is a conduit for
various kinds of mobile peoples, and the bounding of the
country really did sort of transform those mobility
patterns in substantive ways, and let’s remember again how
difficult it is to map mobility. So, the point to take away
is that there’s something to some extent unnatural
about the effects of this map on the larger historical
relationships that Afghanistan has had
with surrounding regions. Okay, to give you a sense of
the resources I’m calling upon in my work we have a just, oh, thousands of maps online
up just going around. My first book is really
predicated on maps found at the David Rumsey site, that
is just so fabulously rich for all parts of the
world in all eras. Some of my conceptual
understanding comes from this history of cartography
series, that’s again online and available at the
University of Chicago. Up in the right-hand
corner, the University of Texas has a fantastic
online map collection that is continually growing. I just saw a fantastic set of
aeronautical maps of Afghanistan up there since the
last time I checked. In the center, we have
the world digital library which has a massive
assortment, thousands, I want to say 1067
relevant map hits. Again, all available online. The relationship between
the world digital library and the Library of
Congress is intimate, there’s an organic
relationship there. And, I need to also
reference the significance of UNESCO funding and Carnegie
Corporation of New York funding to get the [inaudible]
digital components of the world digital
library up and available for everyone online;
just a fantastic thing. On the bottom right
corner is a volume that’s in the library downstairs, and
downstairs in the geography and maps division there’s
certainly archival maps but just also a wonderful
library, and this is those maps of Persia really contain
hundreds of images of Afghanistan as well. Finally, on the bottom right
corner at the University of Michigan there’s a
wonderful online repository for the colonial mapping
subject that I’m dealing with here in principle today. So, I want you to be aware
of that and again we’ve heard so much about the map
resources available here on site physically. It is absolutely important to
recognize that Islam is one of many kinds of civilizational or imperial formations
that’s affected Afghanistan. It’s important to
recognize that Islam brought with it a new epistemology
about time and space. And what Islam brought is a
new calendar, a lunar calendar, the Hijri calendar, we’re
experiencing it with Eid today. It also brought with it a new
sense of spatial priorities with Mecca and Medina,
and Jerusalem. And through the progress of
Islam its historic expansion, very broad discontinuous,
those elements of Islam its intellectual and its geographic constitution
pay a tremendous amount of influence on the
mapping of Afghanistan in so many different ways. So, what Islam did
was not create, it’s sort of new epistemological
framework out of whole cloth, it absorbed what came before in
really fantastic organized ways. And, when we think
of the mapping of Afghanistan we can certainly
go back to ancient history and the Indus Valley
Civilization and sort of argue about sites and what
they might mean map wise, but it’s really the Greco sort
of Roman, Mediterranean mapping of Afghanistan that
draws a lot of attention. And, we can’t begin
that discussion without referencing Herodotus,
and Herodotus is so significant for mapping what is then the
known world or the ecumene. And that sort of heritage
of Alexander’s passing through Persia and Iran
and the literary legacy, the potential mapping legacy of that period fed
directly into Islam. And Islam, to achieve
its mapping goals use new technologies, and this is
a modern astrolabe re-built modern, 2013, built in Tabriz. But it is a reflective
of this instrumentality that Islam really popularized
and kind of valorized in many ways to inform
its mapping projects. And when it comes to Islam
and its spatial priorities, that is towards Mecca,
we have a whole series of what are called
Qibla maps that sort of orientate the viewer
to Mecca and Medina. And, of course architecturally
mosques have to look towards Mecca,
and there’s a lot of orientation towards Mecca
that the astrolabe kind of captures as it is used for. The astrolabe is
basically an inclinometer, it measures angles. So, it’s used by
astronomers and navigators to tell latitude primarily,
but it can also tell altitude and is a really just a
sophisticated instrument. That during the early
Abbasid caliphate the son of Harun al-Rashid
Mamun developed the, we could call it a
global scientific project at the Bayt al-Hikmah to
basically translate Greek and Roman, Byzantine texts, as well as Indian
texts and knowledge. So, what’s happening in Baghdad
is a synthesis of historic and global cartographic
information and theories, and it is a real wonderful
example of how maps are really in many ways kind of
co-produced with other maps and other pressures on mapping. And what becomes sort of
of this Islamic mapping, we here have a map of El
Bodoni one of the world’s around the Year 1000 AD we
can think roughly, arguably, one of the two most influential
intellectuals on the planet around that time with Ibn Sina,
Avicenna, being the other. But Al-Biruni was a
mathematician who brought a kind of mathematical sensibility
to the cartography of Islam, and Al-Biruni gives us a sense
that the world is connected by seas, kind of the first
one to see the connections of all the world’s water bodies. And, what’s happening, leading
up to Al-Biruni is what is known in the literature as the Balkhi
school of cartography; Balkan, northern Afghanistan, again developed a really
historically influential system of mapping the world
through various regions. Ptolemy, whose work was the
basis of all mapping activity until that point saw the world through various seven climactic
zones, each side of the Equator, seven climactic zones was the
basis of Ptolemy’s understanding of astronomy and math
and therefore mapping. And, he was, it’s still
an earth centric view, but what is happening in the
Balkhi school of cartography is that the sort of mapping
of seven climates gave way to mapping seven regions of the
world, and it’s the elaboration of that regional mapping that the Islamic experience
really brings to the fore. And what we don’t have from the
Balkhi is any residual actual textual products from that era. What we have to rely upon is a
map from Istakhri, from a little after that time that is
probably the most known resource for the Balkhi school. And what’s important
about this image of Istakhri’s is it
highlights the aspect of the Islamic [inaudible]
experience focusing on texts, and books, and of course the
Quran and other legal texts. But there are substantive
geographic narratives in the history of Islam,
Al-Biruni is one of them; Iben Battuta is another. So, there’s a really rich
manuscript and textual tradition that we need to understand
in the Islamic framework to understand maps
within that framework. And the prioritization of a
manuscript tradition that led to the illumination,
or illustration, of these manuscripts
particularly under the Mogul period, just
wonderful, points to first of all the gold, and
other precious metals, including lapis lazuli that
in impact the pigmentation of the inks and dyes, and
what we have here is a really embeddedness of these
visual map images in a larger textual
tradition of Islam. And that is interesting because
Islam really did not develop its own cartographic tradition. It did not bring to bear
all of its astronomical and mathematical
sciences to produce maps for their own purpose. Maps were seen as a larger
part, a part of a larger system of knowledge formation that was
very literary, very historical; tied to elites tied
to literate classes. So, it’s really important
to reflect; what do maps do for people? Who were using these
maps, and why? And again, Islam’s great
geographic expanse, and the sort of commercial and political
ramifications of that again, really give us mapping
pressures. Finally, just a, really by way
of background we have to think of maps with reference to
paper, and paper itself is just such an important technology
for the manuscript tradition of Islam more generally. But it’s really in the 8th
century that paper production from China gets really sort
of monopolized by the Arabs. So, Damascus, even Samarkand,
and Baghdad become centers of paper production
really significant. Linguistically, there are
a number of words that come into play, units of measurement. Whether they’re distances
traveled, a day’s journey, a manzil, or a distance,
could be a farsakh, or a unit of measurement. And so, the vocabulary of these
maps goes across the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish
linguistic domains, and again the ramifications
here lead to a wide variety of vocabulary; there’s
no one word for map. There’s different words that
are used to refer to maps, and that is also something to
keep in mind as we now start to make our way, in a
much more speedy way, through the remainder
of our images here. And I’m sorry my enthusiasm
I think got the better of me with all of this, but the
sort of legacy of Islam, for our purpose now
we need to focus on its articulation
in the Mughal Empire. And the Mughal Empire again a
very texturally rich domain, but not a lot of maps per se. We have some maps that can
be recreated, such as this by Irfan Habib, who would
be the scholar most, the Mughal historian who
does the most with maps, and you can see what
Irfan Habib has done in the twentieth century
is take the wealth of Mughal Persian
language documents. And it’s important to
remember the Mughal Empire ran on Persian beginning
in 1575, up until 1835, when the British finally sort of
denuded Persian of its priority. But what this map gives us
is a very wonderful expose on natural resources
and the ecology. If you can zoom in, your eyes
at least, you can see words like you know cotton and
rice and citron and wheat. So, it’s not a political map, it’s really an environmental
map, which speaks to the sensibilities
that the Mughal had for their environment. And this is most
especially true of Babur, the founder of the Mughal
Empire, buried in Kabul, who made his name and
reputation in an around Kabul. Whose memoirs are a rich
narrative geographical map of the Kabul region. And Babur’s records, his autobiography
have been illustrated in such abundantly
fabulous ways. Again, not maps per se. Now the Mughals did
have route maps, and this is a route
map to Kandahar. And this speaks to the
priority of Kandahar and Kabul for the Mughals, but also for
the Safavids at the same time between roughly the
years 1500 and 1700. Aurangzeb the later Mughal ruler
is known to have relied on maps, and this is the best I
could do with a Mughal map of the northwestern region
that would involve Afghanistan. It’s illegible but at least it
exists in the National Archives of India for scholarly use, and
they don’t digitize so I’m sorry to blur your lunch
hour with this. During the Mughal Empire
we also have a wide variety of European travelers
whose narratives and activities spawned
maps of the Mughal Empire. And Tavernier, John
Baptiste Tavernier, is a prominent figure
in this regard. These are some of his
maps of the Mughal Empire. And now we will go from the
Mughal Imperial perspective, to sort of looking at
early modern European maps of this region more broadly. And I will go fast,
relatively fast, to capture — what you’ll see is a lot
of different languages and perspectives which
speaks to various kinds of Imperial interests and
emphases in these maps that we have, this from
downstairs, Cynthia, 1600s this is 1600, I believe. They’re just fantastic, I just can’t say how fun
it is to work down there. Especially with the
pre-modern maps that have such wonderful marginalia. And this marginalia
is itself also just as a system of information. We have basically
ethnography, an urban sort of you know history coming
into play on this map here. And what fascinates me, again
about some of the marginalia, is they’re very instructive
about the patrons and the methods and the reasons for the map appearing
as it does. And if you go to the map
library downstairs you can scan for free, and you get huge files
that are difficult to download and upload, but this is a
sampling of some of them. Again, the marginalia. Here we get the maps from
the Flemish cartographer, Abraham Ortelius. Again, in the 16th century, in this age of Dutch really
global commercial expansion, Ortelius is famous, and this
this is an online version of his world atlas; he’s
the person most known, he’s most commonly
referred to as the person who made the first world atlas,
that’s a contested claim. But the atlas is a series
of sheets of different parts of the world, and this
is from South Asia. And more from, that’s
from the Indian side, that’s from the Iranian
side; this is online at the world digital library
but when you go downstairs to Cindy’s office,
you get a different, I don’t know how many copies
of Ortelius we have here. [Inaudible] something like, this
is one of them we weren’t able to get the date, but you can
see it’s just wonderfully illuminated with colors in
a way the other one wasn’t. And what’s important to note
here is we have the region of Afghanistan on the map, but
we have it mapped incorrectly, with for example
you can see Kabul — I wish I had a pointer — you
can see Kabul below Kandahar to the south of Kandahar. Kabul and Kandahar
are inverted, okay. And, again because these
maps are in dialogue with one another constantly
being reprinted and redone that relationship between
Kandahar and Kabul is repeated in other maps, the incorrect,
technically incorrect, but again the map isn’t
designed necessarily for for that kind of concern. This is better, I’m sorry. So, Ortelius is just
a treasure downstairs, Hirad and I actually
were there together when we got this taken out. This is another very
famous cartographer, who is mapping Persia and
Afghanistan, and the thing to note here — what
have I done Hirad. [Inaudible]. Excuse me. — That you can see the
same relationships in Kabul and Kandahar is repeated
here, but on this map, which is from William
Junsu’s Blau, same era generally is notable
for the only mark of color on this otherwise
black and white map is for a dash of red on a Persian. Now this speaks me — excuse me? The beard must. Yep, and what I hypothesized that this is the way this mapper
referenced the Kissel Bosch, the redhead. Hypothesis I will explore and and be critiqued
for in due course. Again, really just
giving you a sense, in these maps the marginalia
that attracts me the most again, would be the animals; I am into
environmental things these days. And what’s really interesting is
that the presence of elephants and camels on these maps in the margins is just
really a very conspicuous. And what seems to
be happening is that when the perspective
comes from kind of South Asia, there’s elephants on the map,
when the perspective comes from the Middle East you
get camels on the map. And I just love that again since Afghanistan can be
again synthetic in many ways. This is a late 18th
century map that gets, this is my first indication
of something produced in the U.S. I believe it’s, I
want to say 1766 but I could be. Based upon a British
map that is, again. Now we come to my book the
first book Connecting Histories in Afghanistan is available
online you don’t have to buy it, but if you like to that’s great. Books are wonderful;
we’re librarians in spirit today,
and books are great. Digital publications
also have their place, and my book was born
digitally which allowed me to incorporate maps and I could
say it was the digital sort of production of this book
that got me interested in maps in the first instance. And I will show you those images
in due course but my interest in the book and the role of
maps in supporting the argument of the book is that
colonialism really did something to Afghanistan and the
first thing it did is a privileged Kabul. Kabul became really
now the center of this thing called
Afghanistan, it was the colonial
understanding of where people should be. And, again, the mobility of
Afghans makes this a really sort of complex proposition as we
may still be witnessing today. The book got incorporated in
the ACLS humanities ebook series which is just another wonderful
online source for just some of the world’s greatest books. Certainly not this
exceptional book on Afghanistan. This is where I began to
think about Afghanistan without borders, and we have
the engineer or architect of this map in the
audience today, my son, who as a high school
student was able to produce this using
some software package that was cutting-edge
at the time and is now probably
outdated to give you a sense of how quickly their mapping. My book is really about, the way
I got around Kabul’s sort of, the narrative of
Afghanistan about Kabul and about two British wars, is
I looked at market relations between these three cities. And the thing about these three
cities is one of them ended up outside of Afghanistan
that’s Peshawar. But that belies a deeper,
mostly millennial history of intimate connections
between these regions that you can understand
geographically. Even just looking at this
it’s sort of a straight shot from Peshawar to
Kabul to Kandahar. You have nice roads and
valleys, maybe a few miles in the high bar or a
little sketchy, but it’s, they’re accessible cities,
and they’ve been in dialogue, they’ve been in relationship. And so, then I go
through there’s ten maps and they begin in 1724? I believe. And they go through
the mid-1800s. And the argument here is that
there is this relationship where Kabul was mapped
and very prominently so, gradually this thing called
Afghanistan gets mapped first faintly then more
boldly and broadly, and then Afghanistan sort
of takes over a Kabul, and everything else around them
as a cartographic category. And there’s a lot of political
processes behind that, but there’s that dialectic
where Afghanistan sort of triumphs over Kabul. And I go through these
maps and look at them, they’re largely again from David
Rumsey multiple European Maps, and I focus on that relationship
between Kandahar and Kabul. So, each map has a smaller
screen where I focus in on Kandahar and Kabul, okay. And I’m going to go through
these really quickly, because you’ve got them online. Not all of them one, of the
shortcomings of a printed book, is it’s expensive to print maps, and so they put only
two or three in there. It’s just wonderful. Again, German mapping,
different configurations. Once Afghanistan does get
mapped it looks different to different people. It’s an interesting story. This I believe the important
thing about these maps, Johnston’s and Colton’s, is
their United States products, and we started getting
a lot of these. There’s, I want to say scores
downstairs between the 1850s and 1890s of these kind
of colorful renditions, which other empires, are
doing and what we have to appreciate is that
mapping becomes a globally, it’s a form of knowledge that’s
very dynamic, and interactive, and once a mapping development
happens it gets sort of adopted and it take holds in other ways. And there’s a lot of
redundancy and repetition in the cartographic oeuvre of
Afghanistan because of that. Alexander the Great’s presence
in Afghanistan is something that all Imperial mappers were
consumed with in the modern era because they all, modern
European nation states, are staking claim to Alexander’s
heritage in so many ways. And so, there’s, I will say
a hundred, and I’ll have to be proven wrong,
Alexander Maps downstairs. French maps, I’m going to just
go through these, these are maps that did not make
it into my book. This one I wish I could have because what this says
is Kabul oh Afghanistan. A map that’s it I’m
reading this as or. And again, there’s history of
French language I’m not sure if it’s actually or,
maybe someone can help me. [Inaudible]. I understood it to have
some changing meanings, and I’m so happy to confirm, that Mary-Jane has
confirmed my hunch, because when have you seen a
map that says this or that? You’re either here or you’re
there, you’re in Kabul or you’re in Afghanistan. What’s happening here? Kabul or Afghanistan? More Alexander. Most of these European maps have
a rather consistent physical and material sort of profile. Again, there are some exceptions where this becomes much
larger and more rectangular. Particular regions, the Suleiman
mountains become an object of mapping. Russian maps, this is
our first Russian map of the Amu Daria 1873, and we’ll
hopefully get back into that. Rand McNally, the US Atlas
producer, is producing maps for their atlases,
and now we need to start appreciating what I
tell my students are some rules of the map road. That is, first of all,
maps are always incomplete; and that puts a pressure
on refining the map. And that can lead to
what’s called map anxiety, make a better map, the maps
got to be better, constantly. Maps also relate to texts
there’s always a narrative or a text associated with or
behind the map, or indeed sort of on the page with the map. We saw an earlier map that
has sort of narrative with it. Maps relate constantly to other
maps; maps are in dialogue with other maps, in a
sort of metaphorical way. And, again, the audience
is important here because Afghanistan is now being
mapped into the American sort of public consciousness
as it were, and we can see that Afghanistan’s place
in global affairs that is with the sort of late 19th,
early 20th century question about essentially the demise
of the Ottoman Empire, the eastern question,
gets mapped and Afghanistan gets
mapped into that sort of geopolitical frame
of reference. Rand McNally, from 1885, the
map you just saw to 1897, improved its map, got a little
more accurate, a little cleaner. And again, Rand McNally
can never have, the quest for perfection is
ongoing when it comes to maps. Okay, so, my second book about Mountstuart
Elphinstone is really designed to bring this figure of
Mountstuart Elphinstone into scholarly view as someone
who has two separate histories. Mountstuart Elphinstone
has been seen as a major prominent
player in British India. Involved with all kinds of urban
revolutions with sanitation, and legal and administrative, architectural infrastructure
kind of in Bombay. He was asked to be
a governor-general of British India. He wrote a history of India
in 1841 that kind of put him on the map of scholars. And he is known to be
relevant to British India, for the most part, except
those few people who work on Afghanistan who know
that Elphinstone is actually in many ways the founder
of Afghanistan studies. Because he wrote the book,
the first colonial handbook, of Afghanistan called not
history of Afghanistan, an account of the
Kingdom of Kabul. Elphinstone saw Kabul he
did not see Afghanistan. Elphinstone, my work
with him is to sort of bridge these two gaps;
Elphinstone the Indianist, Elphinstone the Afghanistanist,
and that’s really what that book is all about. My contribution intellectually
to the book is around his maps. And what’s important about maps
in general and it’s this is sort of the elephant in the room is
there’s a history of printing. The sort of the Gutenberg
Revolution and printing. There’s a sort of
sub history to all of this that’s routed
through printing. Elphinstone produces the first
map of the kingdom of Kabul when he writes the first
encyclopedia for Afghanistan, and in that way, Elphinstone
sets the epistemological framework, the ways of understanding
Afghanistan, it’s Elphinstone. And what we see here is that
this book is the product of his diplomatic mission; he was the ambassador the first
British ambassador to the court of Shah Shuja, the kingdom
of Kabul in 1808 to 1810. And that mission is
a diplomatic embassy where he had 13 other British
officers working on all kinds of geologic, astronomical, as well as cartographic
issues as we’ll see. So, it’s a huge embassy that
gathered, as these things do, lots of information from lots of
sources over a couple of years. And Elphinstone sort of
systematizes and synthesizes all of that report embassy
information for a book that’s
published at first in 1815. That is five years after
the mission itself. It gets republished in 1819, it
gets republished in 1839 leading up to the first British
Invasion, to become literally the
handbook for the war. And what the sort of
history of this book gets us into the history of the book,
and the history of printing. And Elphinstone’s book
changes its format from one to two volumes, illustrations
or not, that kind of thing, in many ways because of the map. The first map that you’ll
see from Elphinstone is tied to a number of other maps and
what I want to do really now is to give you a sense of
the dynamic relationship that Elphinstone had to
his information that he had to the map, and that the sort of maps have involved
have in among themselves. This is the map in question. The map published in an account
of the kingdom of Kabul in 1815. And what this map reflects is that it is based
upon another map. That is the map produced by
Lieutenant John McCartney, who is the official
mapper of the mission. We’ll see John McCartney’s
map in a second. Note that there’s no Afghanistan
in the title or insignia here, but it does appear very faintly,
and if I had the flicker, Afghanistan appears as
does the kingdom of Kabul, so it’s a really complex map. It’s got different colors, you can see that capture
Elphinstone’s route. So, Elphinstone is the second
documented European to get to this region called
Afghanistan. Forster in the earlier
period, 17th century, also kind of you
know had a narrative, and you can see there
Elphinstone leaves Delhi and makes his way. Did not know where Kabul was, he leaves Delhi really not
knowing where Kabul was. And that’s kind of part of the
project was to bring Afghanistan into the colonial mapping fold. Elphinstone had to petition his
superiors to publish his map. The reason that there
were restrictions on publishing maps was because
of the global war with France, who had invaded Egypt
and the great threat of France invading Afghanistan through Iran really is what led
Elphinstone to be dispatched to Kabul to get a Treaty
of alliance in case of the French invasion. At the same time,
John Malcolm was sent to Persia for the same purpose. And Elphinstone, to
get his map published, had to reference this map; a
map of 1813 that’s produced by John McDonald Kinnear,
but it’s of Persia. And what’s important about
this, he titles his map, as you can see, but the
geographic space is Persia. And what you can see is that
the critical information of this map was out in the
public and Elphinstone uses that accessibility
of these passes, potential mountain passes,
for the French to go through to publish his map. Elphinstone had to say
there’s already a published map of this area, my stuff
isn’t so sensitive that it can’t be
published, so publish my map. And that’s a really
long archival story. Kinnear’s map of Persia of 1813
also relates to Malcolm’s map; I told you Malcolm was
dispatched to Persia. He produces a map from that
mission very similar to Kinnear. The real template for all of these mapping projects is the
map of India that was produced by James Rennell or Reynold,
James Rennell or Reynold, I’m not precisely sure
the pronunciation. But his mapping of
India, sort of all India into cartographic view, led to the great trigonometrical
survey, and really the sort of institution for
continually mapping India. You can see there’s really
no Afghanistan on the map. Where there’s dense and
density of visual stimulus, that means mountains, roads,
and cities, that means a lot of information, where you
can pack a lot of information into your map you know
a lot about that place. And you can see the gap
that all that Afghanistan, geographic Afghanistan,
represents here. There’s nothing known about it. And Elphinstone is sent to
learn something and map it. This would be the area where
we would expect to find Kabul, and I think we do get
Kabul, but not Kandahar. So, Rennell is the template
and Elphinstone references, Rennell in his map he says
I’m doing this to sort of extend the line that
Rennell established in India. So, Elphinstone publishes
his map in 1815, but it’s not the digital
age so he has to send things to London, which takes time. The first edition did not
get the latest corrections that Elphinstone had
sent along to his map. So, essentially the
second volume of an account of the kingdom of Kabul in 1819
has a new map based upon the updated information. And then, in the
1830s, Alexander Burns, the very famous colonial actor,
some say he’s the template for kind of James Bond, a real
famous spy, feted by the Queen, and just really very prominent
in the history of Afghanistan and Central Asia, publishes his
map, produced in conjunction with his local guide and
informant Mohan Lal Kashmiri, in 1834 based upon years
in the environment, and Mohan Lal’s ability
to read Persian. And Elphinstone then
is confronted with this more accurate
map produced in the 1830s, what does he do with
his map in 1839? Well he writes a note and
says look, I corrected my map in the second edition,
but Burns’ map is better. So, rather than confusion for
anyone using this map as you’re about to invade Afghanistan,
I’m going to revert to my original incorrect map
and direct you all to Burns. And of course, Burns
becomes a major figure in the first occupation of
Kabul, and the decimation of the first British
Army of Occupation. In fact, it’s his assassination
that lights off the revolt that leads to the
disastrous evacuation. Burns is killed on November
7th, 1841, the British tried to retreat outside of
Kabul in early January and are decimated in route. So, Elphinstone, rather Burns,
titles his map as follows. And what’s going on here,
it’s now time to take stock of the role of capitalism,
not just in the formation of early modern empires, but
as a sort of again agency for all kinds of intellectual
and artistic production. And the sort of capitalist
involved, the entrepreneur, the cartographic entrepreneur,
that is has his hand in all of these maps is
named John Arrowsmith. And John Arrowsmith is kind
of the mapper for the Empire. He’s in London receiving
information, textual and visual from all over the world and he
produces these wonderful maps that again are published
for the British and wider imperial audience and
end up being really foundational for what we could call public
knowledge of the world. He’s a fantastically
important figure in these map histories
of Afghanistan. This is the most important
thing you will see today. This is the map produced
by the official mapper of Elphinstone’s embassy. That they weren’t
called mappers, they were called surveyors. Lieutenant John McCartney was
recruited from China to come and produce this
map for Elphinstone. And one of the things about
these master mappers Rennell, sort of an exception, is they
tend to die really early; Rennell lived a long time
McCartney died shortly after submitting his map,
his sort of final product. And this is it. McCartney and Elphinstone
relied on the same information, the same body of information,
the same informants, the same data, and they
produced radically different textual artifacts. Elphinstone’s book folds
out Elphinstone’s map folds out of a book, it’s small; this is a big map
it’s multiple tables. This map is not of
the kingdom of Kabul. McCartney thinks he’s
mapping basically the Punjab and the Indus. The Indus attracts so much
cartographic emphasis, and scientific emphasis,
during this period, it’s really phenomenal. And what we see through
that is that the ecology of Afghanistan its maps and
mountains it’s it’s rivers and mountains are
things that get mapped and helped bring the
whole thing into shape. It’s a fantastic story. McCartney doesn’t just have
a different visual, material, aesthetic, product he has
a different conceptual and theoretical product. Because maps are supposed
to indicate things about the real world, that is
how this place called Kabul called Afghanistan
operates; who’s there? How do they relate? How are they organized? Elphinstone has a full book, 800 pages to explain
his map in that sense. McCartney has his archival
notes, couple hundred pages but very different sort
of memoir of this map. And all maps kind of have texts
or memoirs associated with them. The intervention here, what
we can see basically is the following conclusion. Elphinstone is so
important for Afghanistan because he placed Pashtuns
and Pashto at the cultural and historic core of
the Afghan nation. I’ll say that again; Elphinstone
positions Pashtuns, culturally, historically, politically, at the core of the people
called Afghans a broader group that fits into Afghanistan
from the colonial mindset. So, Pashtuns are
organically Afghans, and may be the sort
of most important. And this privileging of Pashtuns
into Afghans as we heard about, is extremely problematic;
extremely problematic for so many different reasons. In fact, today, the sort
of political tensions between Afghan and
Pashtun are kind of all over the electoral map if nothing else in
Afghanistan today. So, Elphinstone succeeds by being an authoritative
living scholar, administrator, for putting that view of
Afghanistan not only on the map and in the book but
in terms of policy. So, Afghanistan has to be a
place where Kabul’s the capital, Pashtuns are the rulers, and
it’s got these boundaries, and just whatever happens after
that the violence inflicted on Afghanistan by
the map, don’t worry. But that reading of Afghanistan
and Elphinstone’s framing of it that way are during their
alive today, in policy and intellectual circles. They’re the majority view. The minority view is McCartney,
where you can see faintly, first of all his methodology
is different than Elphinstone, where you can see Elphinstone
used only words that were in printed terms, fonts of
larger and smaller size, either sort of bold
or italic or hollow. And what Elphinstone
did with his map — I’ll just go back to it for the
unpleasant scrolling impact, I apologize — but
just so you understand that Elphinstone’s map
does not have a kind of key or code to it. It’s just letters
that you can see even at this distance have different
sort of density, intensity, importance, and priority. Really bold to really small,
spread out or concentrated. And that methodology
is distinct; this would be a good time
to check your text messages or whatever you have to do
because I’m going to go back to McCartney’s map which has
a different methodology to it, where he places Roman
numerals in certain areas to indicate the geographic
dispersion of these people. Again, he’s dealing
with mobility in a different way
than Elphinstone. Okay? And what he does
is use Roman numerals and scattered them about, but those numerals also have
different colors they do represent sort of
different things. And what the bottom line is that he separates the two major
Pashtun tribes [inaudible] from Afghans. McCartney separates
Pashtuns from afghans, and it’s a scientific conclusion that the master mapper
leaves for posterity. And I’ll just conclude with
some mapping of the defeat of the British, the decimation
of the British Invasion force. And just finally because it’s
only after the second war that Afghanistan takes
cartographic shape as we know it today,
and those that process after the second Afghan war
led to boundary missions. And those the bounding and the
boundary missions generate just a huge amount of
maps that are so, so exciting for future scholars. And what I will leave
with is sort of the end of the Imperial mapping
of Afghanistan. We spent too much
time talking about it, I’m sorry to not leave
enough time for questions, but what I want to
contrast imperial mapping with is national mapping. And I hope to be able to
share with you some thoughts on the sort of Afghanistan
mapping itself too so to speak in the 20th century. And I can’t thank you
enough for sharing so much of your special Eid lunch
hour with me and for all of the supporters and facilitators who
made this happen. It’s been a great privilege, a great honor I wish
you all the best with your continued
thinking about Afghanistan. Thank you. [ Applause ]

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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