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Ancient Egypt Documentary Part 4



from much better technology they had better kills in Upper Egypt and obviously the lower Egyptian people who made this kind of thoughts realized that – so they try to imitate these parts but with their lower Egyptian technique and skill which is not very high so they didn't do a very good job deena felting cz's work at butoh reveals that by 3200 BC the superior culture of Upper Egypt had swept through Lower Egypt and the two kingdoms became one that was the transformation peaceful or was it bloody the union of the two kingdoms along the Nile was a milestone in Egyptian civilization but how it came about was a nagging question all archaeologists had to go on was a single object found at her accomplice in 1898 this exquisite ceremonial palette made of slate dates back to around 3100 BC it was dedicated by a king of Upper Egypt called nama who some believe was the legendary King many Egypt's first pharaoh on one side nama wearing a bell descr and is about to strike down a prisoner in the presence of horus the hawk god of higher countenance on the other side of the pellet Narmer wearing a crown with a curl tongue appears in a procession moving towards two rows of decapitated prisoners the Lions their long necks intertwined symbolize unification the key to understanding narmer's pellet is in the crowns in Upper Egypt the King donned a white crown with a bulbous tip in Lower Egypt a red crown with a long protruding tongue together they form a double crown signifying that Pharaoh had become the lord of the two lands for the next 3,000 years after unification the image of the king wearing a double crown would appear on statues and temples throughout Egypt to reinforce his dominion over all the land Namas pellet seemed to confirm that unification occurred after a bloody conquest but for the century it remained the only evidence until a tiny object turned up at Egypt's oldest royal graveyard Abydos believed to be the final resting place of Osiris the god of the dead the ground is strewn with broken pots the shattered remains of offerings to one of Egypt's most important gods long before the Pharaohs carve their tombs in the Valley of the Kings or built the pyramids Egypt's first rulers were buried here in large brick lined grains extensively explored around the turn of the century abiders was thought to have yielded up all of its secrets until 1977 when German archaeologists into Dreyer reopened the site since then he and his team have reinvestigated the tombs of several early kings including that of king nama Dreyer is excited about the discovery of an ivory label labels like this were originally attached to jars of oil small as it is it contained a big surprise it seems to depict the event unarmed as pellet this is an ivory label of king Narmer found near his tomb such labels served to indicate the date of shipments of oil at that time dates were indicated by names of years and these names were chosen after the most important events of that year in this case it's a victory of king Narmer over the Delta people and obviously it's the same event as depicted on the famous Narmer palette from this we may conclude that the Norma palette indeed refers to a historical event which took place in a certain year but the label is only one piece of the puzzle another discovery at Abydos suggests that the process of unification had begun long before Nana under these mounds of rubble dryer found the tombs of kings from a previously unknown dynasty which Egyptologists now call dynasty 0 in the tombs were more labels even more astonishing than the first here each tin ivory was clear-cut proof the Egyptians had developed a fully evolved system of writing not only earlier than previously thought but earlier than the Sumerians in Mesopotamia who are credited with being the first to produce a written language the earliest Sumerian writing seen here was an accounting system made up of simple pictures and numbers Egyptian writing already contained sound signs like modern alphabets the hieroglyphs on these labels all represent sounds the snake stands to the sound jus along with two triangles it spells out the word Jew which means Mountain the symbols read the mountains of darkness referring to the west where the Sun sets the hieroglyphs on other labels indicate the king was already collecting taxes from both upper and lower egypt a sure sign unification had already taken place to consolidate the kingdom a new capital was built exactly where upper and lower egypt meet founded by King many who Egyptologists believe is the historical King nama Memphis was destined to be the greatest city in the land for 3,000 years the pharaohs would rule Egypt from Memphis yet today all that's left are ruins but none dating back to the time of King nama Egyptologists have long assumed that the ancient capital was always located here but David Jeffries of the Egypt exploration Society thinks Memphis was somewhere else and has spent nine years trying to find it using a simple manual drill he has taken a series of core samples from fields two miles west of the ruins the cause uncovered a substantial layer of artifacts 10 feet below the surface typically what we expect to find in this area just a few meters down from the position that we've reached at the moment is pottery in the lowest level the lowest silk level pottery that represents the period around 3,000 BC

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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