so we’ll start off in around a thousand AD just because that’s when people start to bother writing things down the guys that we’re interested in writing things down were the church because they wanted to make sure everyone well sound from the same hymn sheet as it were at that time what was sung in churches was a kind of chanting which we know these days as plain chant it sounds like this called Gregorian chant but apparently was nothing to do with Pope Gregory just somehow got that name there was this monk guy called guide Odoacer who thought it would be good to have a bunch of lines let’s call it a slave or a staff and you could then put your notes on that so everyone will know which note to sing but because it’s for the church the words are important is the Word of God the words of what we need to hear so there’s no need to put any rhythm in the notation it’s just pitches the rhythm basically follows the stresses in the rhythms of the words some people have higher voices some lower so eventually the church says ok you can sing a different pitch a different interval as long as you still sound the notes together that sounded a little bit like this popular new instrument organ so it’s known as or Garnon they also thought sometimes it might be ok just to hold one note while the other note changed above that was called drone or Garmin although more often the drone was just played on an instrument things didn’t change very much for several centuries gradually over time the church allowed more and more intervals the fifths and the fourths and eventually thirds until the voices were able to move more or less independently many voices simultaneously is known in music as blue phony and this was a fundamental change in the way music was made here’s an example by parrot I have not tried and from around 1200 things were now getting more complicated so the notation needed to improve Phillip de Vitry a French bishop and composer wrote a famous book called the new art art Nava as opposed to the ARS Antiqua of guided Deir Ezzor and he came up with rhythmic notation ideas and the first time signatures using this system Guillaume de macho became the first composer to set the entire Latin Mass in 1364 what’s interesting about this early music is that to our modern is it feels relatively static it doesn’t particularly travel from one place to another it doesn’t tend to reach a climax starting and stopping a piece seems more like tuning into a river of sound which is always there by the middle of the 15th century it was the Royal Palaces and they are a stock recei who were taking over as the most important influence on the course music took secular music began to influence church music and vice versa as the Renaissance took hold composers began to feel freer to express their own personalities more Roskam Despres was renowned in his day as a composer who brought new levels of expression to his music particularly in the way he set a text for example he might illustrate a tear falling with a downward scale where words had always been the primary focus now music started to take center stage [Music] other comparably grateful if Ernests included Palestrina in italy orlando Dallas’s in the netherlands and William Byrd in England around 1600 Italy became the center of major new musical developments as wealthy and cultured patrons oversaw a flourishing of the Arts the first treatises on musical notation and harmony were written in this period and this is part of the reason why musical terms are still in Italian to this day the wealth of the period led to large ensembles and grander spectacles soon enough the idea of opera was born Monteverde wasn’t the first but he was certainly the first great opera composer and his operas like the 1607 Orfeo remain in regular performance to this day [Music] an out of opera came to features which would dramatically affect the development of music across the continent one was an increasingly dramatic style of music making and to arise in the need for solo lines with a compliment underneath it was actually through instrumentalists imitating the vocals style of opera that the form known as the Sonata first emerged which went on to become one of the key forms of the next 200 years with these developments the Baroque era of Vivaldi Bach and Handel was born in Italy the idea of having a soloist and an orchestral ensemble became popular and was called a concerto Arcangelo Corelli developed the concerto grosso where a group of solo string instruments alternate with the main body of strings in a work [Music] probably the greatest concerto writer of all was Vivaldi who had over 500 in his lifetime before we go on we need to take a brief musical detour to Germany to mention one of the most important composers in classical music history which is Jay s bar his music seemed old-fashioned in its day it was influenced by the contrapuntal school of organ writing by people like Pachelbel and Boxster Hooda and is interesting that bark was one of the last great musicians to be employed by a church barks music has this incredible technical brilliance is full of fugues and amazing counterpoints but I think what makes it survive is this really sublime form of expression which is both grand and humble at the same time [Music] in France it was another keyboard instrument the harpsichord that was most prominent by composers like Cooper on an drummer which was lighter in style in the German style with later composers like scarlatti and Telamon you start to head towards what became known as the classical style along with barkis’s son Carl Philipp Emanuel CPE Bach who developed the idea of the Sonata further this not too begun now to take its familiar form of two contrasting subjects which are then worked out in a development this period coincides with the age of enlightenment which was a philosophical movement dedicated to reason and it’s really interesting to think that the dialectical idea of having a debate between two different ideas which then influenced each other and eventually lead to a synthesis is exactly mirrored in the form of the sonata so it italy had been the center of music from say 1600 to 1750 from 1750 the capital moved to Vienna it was the center of the Habsburg Empire who a great music lovers and they invited Europe’s finest musicians to come to court so it really became a center of great music making among them was Franz Joseph Haydn who became known as the father of the symphony he wrote 104 of them as well as many great string quartets solidifying the position of these two genres in the world of classical music mosa of course was another key classical composer he wrote 41 symphonies and in his last few he started to move beyond hidin into a much more personal searching kind of music which precursors the romantic style so throughout all of this process from the Renaissance onwards you have this sense of the individuality of the composer emerging more and more as well as the sense of drama Mozart pushed the drama in his operas to new heights and in his last four in particular you feel the human characters coming to life more than ever before [Music] Beethoven started his career in the Classical era and his early works were influenced by Hyden but gradually started taking the traditional forms and stretching and distorting them his last string quartets and piano sonatas seemed to destroy the forms from within works that are daring disturbing and moving in equal measure Beethoven was a whole new breed of artist the lone genius who through sheer force of will changed the world’s idea of what music should be his nine symphonies were such a towering achievement that forever after composers felt intimidated and few attempted to write more than that number after Beethoven composers started to take on a much more individual personality and the pace of change in musical style quickens tremendously as the Industrial Revolution took hold orchestras grew larger and the technical standards of instruments improved the newly perfected pianoforte took center stage among many composer performers of the Romantic era like Chopin Shuma Mendelssohn and lists or was used to accompany the voice in the glorious song cycles of Schubert in the second half of the 19th century lists and Valeo has continued the lust for experimentation Berlioz in the field of color and orchestration and list in harmonies that look forward to Bartok and Debussy perhaps the quintessential romantic composer Richard Wagner who was an over-the-top figure who wrote over-the-top pieces his most famous work is the ring of the Nibelungen which is a cycle of four operas usually performed over four nights he wanted to control every aspect of the Opera so it was a whole vision music drama at the same time Brahms was a much more classical romantic he looked back to the Beethoven and was one of the few composers able to ignore bar both in terms of the genres he chose and it turns into the style the end of the 19th century became quite a nationalistic period you have birdy in Italy writing an amazing string of operas which sometimes have strongly nationalists of things there was a strong group of Russian composers like rimsky-korsakov who were known as the mighty five although probably the most successful Russian Tchaikovsky was less interested in the nationalistic aspects the style is a bit more German you also have Dvorak in Bohemia Sibelius in Finland Greek in Norway so ever since the simplicity of the Classical period there had been a gradual increase in chromaticism and in dissonance in music and as the 20th century commenced there was a sense that things were about to change Debussy looked to new scales and modes like the whole tone scale to find fresh sounds Stravinsky in his groundbreaking ballets like petrushka and the Rite of Spring found whole new ways of dealing with rhythm second viennese school of Schoenberg Berg and Webern sought new ways of organizing sounds without a tonic key so-called atonal music was born since this time it’s become much more difficult to discern an overall style or type of music and vastly different approaches are all lumped together as modern music one of the most successful and popular styles in the second half of the 20th century was minimalism composers like Steve Rush John Adams and Philip Glass are among the most regularly performed composers of the modern era so if you know anyone you think might find this interesting do please share it with them what did you think of my very brief history did I miss any one out let me know in the comments what you think thanks very much for watching do hit the subscribe and the like button maybe even that little bell which gives you email notifications and I’ll see you next time [Music] you [Music] you

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. I was trying to squeeze so much in to 10 minutes that I seem to have rather neglected the 20th Century :-0 I will have to remedy that my making another video JUST about the 20th Century I think!

  2. GUY DOUGH? GUY DOUGH? Are you kidding? Gwee-DO. Repeat after me: Gwee-DO Gwee-DO. There. Not so hard was it.

  3. I think you missed two American composers that have been a huge influence: John Philip Sousa and John Williams. They are more contemporary specially John Williams but their works are also genius.

  4. excellent! Thank you! I would have cited Prokofiev as the most influential of the early 20th century, as film and TV scoring today are still heavily based on his technique.

  5. Your otherwise interesting history has done as most modern reviewers of music do and completely bypassed the modern era.
    Music is simply stuck in a time warp of 19th century repetition.

    While many progressive musicians are possibly too simplistic, many others have done quite remarkable work.
    Ike Turner, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Freddie Mercury, to name a few of the more recognised. But the list and progression continues.

  6. This is really incredible and kind of summarizes the hours and hours of classes I had on music history and theory. Cool! Keep making videos please 🙂

  7. I have heard that Beethoven was first using a choir in a symphony. Also the first in writing music to himself, not ordered by anyone.

  8. Great video. How about one on the history of musical instruments and how they affected the development of music?

  9. my boi skipped shostakovich, ernst, prokofiev, paganini, saint saens, handel, wienawski, bartok, ravel, rachmaninoff, john williams… but other than that it ws great

  10. Very interesting for someone like me that is starting to appreciate classical music more as I get older. I love hearing the examples as you speak , but sometimes they are much louder than your voice. This is the 1st video of yours that I've seen. I'm interested in the history of music, especially classical, so I've subscribed to your channel.

  11. I think Beethoven actually deserves more acclaim, distinctly within Classical, Romantic, and the modern era (with the Great Fugue) as well.
    Otherwise I think you've nailed this.

  12. I think that you could have mentioned the influence of French music during the Baroque and later and in particular Lully (while not the greatest of composers) and how aspects of his style influenced everybody from Bach to Beethoven. But a good effort!

  13. What did I think? Well, you earned a sub and I wouldn't presume to tel you anything about classical music. Although, this does kind of prove a point of mine. The term classical music both refers to the classical period in between the baroque and romantic periods AND the entirety of it all. I've argued that in the past.

  14. 11 mins to run through a millennium of music…
    yet rock would take a millennium to describe the 11 minutes of evolution into so many sub-genres.

  15. I think you meant (Edvard) Grieg 😉
    The letters E and I, are in some languages spoken the other way around so „I“ is spoken more like the english „E“ – and vice versa with the letter „E“.

  16. The inspiration from the format of operas and the idea of a greek chorus that responds to the soloist or comments on the soloist lead to the ritornello form, not sonata form. Sonata form, while obviously very popular for use in classic era concerti, symphonies, and chamber instrumental works, does not refer to interaction between a soloist and the orchestra. In fact, originally the term "sonata" was just what all instrumental music was called to differentiate it from vocal works. Baroque era "sonatas" were normally just some variation of a binary form.

    Also, don't mean to be hyper-critical, that part was just a bit misleading. The rest of the video is good! I think focusing on actual discourse and historical content to enlighten viewers about how reactionary these musical eras were to one another would be good rather than focusing on composers (though I know there is a ton of stuff you wanted to put in). But I really like the idea for this, and I am sure it has helped many a classical music enthusiast! :]

  17. Oh, you missed so much out! But this was brillant!!! 🙂 I'd like to put Danish subtitles to it and use it for teaching youngsters. 🙂 Thanks for this!

  18. A good overview, I thought. One thing, though: while you described the progression from plainchant to organum to polyphony, the shift during the Baroque from the horizontal character of medieval and Renaissance polyphony to the vertical character of what we know as modern harmony doesn't get a mention, and I think it really ought to be in there. Again, good overall, but there's that one thing which is kind of important.

  19. Very interesting – thank you. However, there's an error at 6:26. You said that Haydn wrote 104 symphonies, but this is incorrect. I know because I have listened to them all and I can assure you he wrote 4 symphonies 26 times (with variations).

  20. I think Mahler should have been included. Whilst he was appreciated more as a conductor than composer in his own time, his legacy is unquestionable today. He, along with Wagner, has influenced film music more than any other composer, especially in terms of how he orchestrated his music (only Wagner, Berlioz and Ravel could compare). You can't include everyone, but even the BBC included him in their acclaimed 6-part series The Great Composers all those years ago. Otherwise, I enjoyed that very much.

  21. No picture of R. Strauss???? that's okay, I mean, what would you even say that could encompass his awesomeness with such a brief vid hahahah

  22. What? No Mendelssohn?
    This was an excellent video. The clips of music were blended so skillfully it was hard to catch the transition. Well done!

  23. The reason that it was the church people who wrote things down, and not the commoners, was that the commoners were illiterate.

  24. Very interesting video. I like how it moves along and points out all the different eras and artist of a certain time. It would be nice if you could do this with other styles of music as well. Amazing job!

  25. Amazing job for under 12 minutes. Yes, please do the 20th century. If you're going to plug Guido d'Arezzo to the detriment of Mahler, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Rachmaninoff, Ravel, Britten, Vaughan Williams, etc., please learn how to pronounce the name. 😉 https://www.dictionary.com/browse/guido-d-arezzo

  26. I feel like if there is some aspect you must really go in depth in when explaining the history of western classical music is the 20th century; not only because it is the most recent period but also because it is the vastest and most ambiguous one as far as different styles and artistic movements are concerned. I honestly think there is too much of a gap between Schoenberg and minimalism to be ignored; names like Messiaen that, regardless of liking their music or not, have redefined music as such and are important pillars of the genre among other genies such as Bach and Beethoven

  27. You seem to imply that we owe our complex music to the Catholic Church. This could be offensive to the other religions like: eastern orthodox, Buddhism and pentacostals and Baptists, and oh ya: Jova witnesses. Maybe you should rewrite your narrative to make it less Catholic and more diverse.

  28. I think you missed out mentioning Rachmaninov and his return to romanticism during the "modern" era, heavily downplayed by his colleagues but now renown as a great influence in early more elaborate pop music and the return of timeless melodies and motifs well explored through his concertos and other pieces. A true revel of the time, not willing to commit to atonal or minimalistic movements.

  29. I take issue with Vivaldi being the "greatest" composer of Concerti. What's that old joke about how he wrote the same concerto 700 times? Clearly not actually true, but still the point is well taken. Stranded on the poverbial desert Island I'd take the 6 Brandenburg concerti over all of the Vivaldi concerti combined for a lifetime of listening…but that's me.

  30. I thought it was a wonderful summary. One cannot possible list all the details of one thousand years of music, but this was a great attempt. In educating young students, one could use this and expand on each era.

  31. I was kind of intrigued why you didn't mention all of the other movements within Renaissance composition, particularly all of the famous lutenists such as John Dowland, etc. Lute music was the most popular form of secular music for a long time. but I guess that isn't as relevant as Josquin Desprez to the history of classical music

  32. Great condensed history lesson. You got a bit thin in the modern era though. Think about how much music has changed since the end of WW2.

    You forgot to mention John Cage. He really set the stage where just about anything could be listened to musically.

    Also Terry Reilly. He took the classical minimalist form and added an improvisational element to it. That’s why no 2 versions of In C are even close to being the same.

    There’s also numerous film composers who’ve taken classical music to a whole new level. It makes you wonder what Mozart would’ve been like as a film composers.

    Related to film scoring but a sub genre of its own is video game composers. Some video game scores are undeniably classical. With video games the game player often determines the direction the music will go just by playing the game. It’s a skill that not only requires musical ability but also programming the game engine.

    I’m curious to hear where it’s going next.

  33. Gregorian chant is named in honor of pope Gregory because he nurtured singing and singing during the mass. He even financed singing school. So it's not random as you said it.

  34. Nice! I love that Grieg got a shoutout!!! He’s known for Peer Gynt, but his Piano Concerto in A Minor, Op. 16: I is just… fantastic. It has such movement and ferocity and delicateness. It’s sweeping in a way very few pieces are to me. I may be biased, as my Dad would play it when I was a kid, it’d rumble off their baby grand and storm through the house. It felt… momentous and I loved it. I am rarely that impressed with other classical pieces and I feel as though I may have been spoiled, to have grown up with that piece.

  35. you could never make a brief history of music and include all the important composers. So it was pretty good. But i was a bit surprised by some of the choices of examples,like Brahms 3rd mov from the 4th symphony?? teehee.

  36. Great job ! That one really helped.
    an advice : check Aydın Esen he is livinn genius.He is trying to do something new but nobody heard bout him.

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