“The world has persisted
many a long year, having once been set going
in the appropriate motions. From these, everything else follows.” Lucretius. In the beginning, about 13.7 billion years ago, all the space, and all the matter,
and all the energy of the known universe was contained in a volume less
than one trillionth the size of the point of a pin. Conditions were so hot the
basic forces of nature that collectively describe
the universe were unified. For reasons unknown, this
sub-pinpoint-sized cosmos began to expand. When the universe was a piping-hot
10 to the 30th degrees, and a youthful 10 to the
minus 43 seconds old — before which all of our
theories of matter and space break down and have no meaning — black holes spontaneously formed,
disappeared, and formed again, out of the energy contained
within the unified field. Under these extreme conditions,
in what is admittedly speculative physics, the structure of space and
time became severely curved as it gurgled, into a spongy,
foamlike form. During these epochs, phenomena described by
Einstein’s general theory of relativity, the modern theory of gravity, and quantum mechanics, the description
of matter in its smallest scales, were indistinguishable from one another. As the universe continued
to expand and cool, gravity split from the other forces. Quickly thereafter, the strong nuclear force and
the electroweak force split from each other, which was accompanied by an
enormous release of stored energy, that induced a rapid 30-power-of-10
increase in the size of the universe. The rapid expansion of the universe,
known as the epoch of inflation, stretched and smoothed out the cosmic
distribution of matter and energy, so that any regional
variation in density became less than one part
in one hundred thousand. Continuing onward with what is
now laboratory confirmed physics, the universe was hot enough for photons
to spontaneously convert their energy into matter-antimatter particle pairs, which immediately thereafter
annihilated each other, returning their energy
back to the photons. For reasons unknown, this symmetry between
matter and antimatter had been broken, which led to a slight excess
of matter over antimatter. For every billion antimatter particles, a billion plus one matter
particles were born. This asymmetry was small,
but really, really important for the future evolution
of the universe. As the universe continued to cool,
the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic force
and the weak nuclear force, completing the four distinct
and familiar forces of nature. While the energy of the photon
bath continued to drop, pairs of matter-antimatter particles
could no longer be created spontaneously from the available photons. All remaining pairs of matter-antimatter
particles swiftly annihilated, leaving behind a universe with
one particle of ordinary matter for every billion photons,
and no antimatter. Had this matter-over-antimatter
asymmetry not emerged, the expanding universe would forever
be composed of light an nothing else, not even astrophysicists. Over a roughly three-minute period, protons and neutrons assembled
from the annihilations to become the simplest atomic nuclei. Meanwhile, free-roving electrons thoroughly
scattered the photons to and fro, creating an opaque soup
of matter and energy. When the univers cooled below
a few thousand degrees Kelvin, about the temperature
of fireplace embers, the loose electrons moved slowly enough to get snatched from the
soup by the roving nuclei, to make completed atoms of
hydrogen, helium, and lithium, the three lightest elements. The universe is now, for the first time,
transparent to visible light, and these free-flying
photons are visible today as the cosmic microwave background. Over the first billion years, the universe continued
to expand and cool, as matter gravitated into this massive
concentrations we call galaxies. Between 50 and 100
billion of them formed, each containing hundreds
of billions of stars, that undergo thermonuclear
fusion in their cores. Those stars with more than about
10 times the mass of the Sun achieve sufficient pressure
and temperature in their cores to manufacture dozens of
elements havier than hydrogen, including elements that compose
the planets and life upon them. These element would be
emarassingly useless were they to remain
locked inside the star. But high mass stars,
fortuitously, explode, scattering their chemically enriched
guts throughout the galaxy. After seven or eight billion
years of such enrichment, an undistinguished star was born
in an undistinguished region of an undistinguished galaxy, in an undistinguished
part of the universe: the outskirts of the Virgo supercluster. During the formation
of this star system, matter condensed and accreted out of the
parent cloud of gas while circling the Sun. The gas cloud from which the Sun formed contained a sufficient
supply of heavy elements to form a system of planets, thousands
of asteroids, and billions of comets. For several hundred million years,
the persisting impacts of high velocity comets
and other leftover debris, rendered molten the surfaces
of the rocky planets, preventing the formation
of complex molecules. As less an less accretable matter
remained in the Solar System, the planet surfaces began to cool. The one we call Earth formed
in a zone around the Sun where oceans remain
largely liquid in form. Had Earth been much closer to the Sun,
the oceans would have vaporized. Had Earth been much farther,
the oceans would have frozen. In either case, life as we know
it would not have evolved. Within the chemically rich liquid
oceans, by a mechanism unknown, there emerged simple anaerobic
bacteria, that unwillingly transformed Earth’s carbon
dioxide rich atmosphere into one with sufficient oxygen to
allow aerobic organisms to emerge and dominate the oceans and land. The same oxygen atoms,
normally found in pairs, O2, also combined in threes to form ozone,
O3, in the upper atmosphere, that protects Earth’s surface from most of the Sun’s molecule-hostile
ultraviolet photons. The remarkable diversity
of life on Earth and we presume elsewhere
in the universe, is owed to the cosmic
abundance of carbon, and the countless number of molecules,
simple and complex, made from it. How can you argue, when there are more
varieties of carbon-based molecules than all other molecules combined? But life is fragile. Earth’s encounters with large leftover
meteors, a formerly common event, wreak intermittent havoc
upon the ecosystem. A mere 65 million years ago,
less than 2% of Earth’s past, a ten trillion ton asteroid hit
what is now the Yucatan peninsula, and obliterated over 70% of Earth’s
species of flora and fauna, including dinosaurs,
the dominant land animals. This ecological tragedy
pried open an opportunity for small surviving mammals to
fill freshly vacant niches. One big-brained branch of these mammals,
that which we call primates, evolved a genus and a
species, homo sapiens, to a level of intelligence
that enabled them to invent methods and tools of
science, to invent astrophysics, and to deduce the origin and
evolution of the universe. Yes, the universe had a beginning. Yes, the universe continues to evolve. And yes, every one of our
bodies atoms is traceable to the Big Bang and to the thermonuclear
furnace within high mass stars. We are not simply in the
universe, we are part of it. We are born from it. One might even say, we’ve been empowered
by the universe to figure itself out. And we’ve only just begun. I’m Neil deGrasse Tyson, astrophysicist and the
Frederick P. Rose Director of New York City’s Hayden Planetarium. Keep looking up.

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. I am Neil deGrasse Tyson and I send this message to any surviving autobots taking refuge among the stars.We are here.We are waiting.

  2. Amazing, I always see the pointlessness of us and the pessimistic reality that is the human experience. Neil really does show our existence is a better light than I could ever perceive or convey. Good stuff Neil . keep up the great work of reaching out to our species and showing us what's really the case. Unfortunately your words will fall on a lot of deaf ears so far as conspiratorial or religious believers, but my ears heard you loud and clear. Thanks amigo.

  3. Respect to tyson and sagan. Allways nice to watch..but the real question. What is the universe? Thats what we want to know. Molecules..gasses..atoms.. universe expanding ….all nice.. but…what IS!! The universe?

  4. The same physicists will not believe me if I said I rolled the dice 10 times and I got number 6 in all of them ! There must be a designer a God behind this coz it's like rolling the dice 10 billion time in a raw and you get 6 in all of them.

  5. The world can come to an end by a very common and most probable thing in the universe… The collision of the planet by an asteroid. And that's it.. Everything ends in a second! Chew on that for a moment.

  6. How do people believe this bullshit, how, but a creator who created everything doesn't make sense?? Lmao yall believe whatever you here

  7. I am a scientist, a philosopher and a religionist who was an Atheist until Feb '69 when I brought closure to Einstein's quest for a Unified Field Equation for his Unified Field Theory of Relativity with the simple expression: 1 = ∞! GOD! I have known God as a matter of fact in my personal consciousness since then, and have discovered the Cosmology of the Unified Field Equation as a Co-ordinate to THE URANTIA BOOK, especially PAPER 105—DEITY AND REALITY. 1 = ∞ brings man to God and God to man. Science is doing what the Christians have been doing: REJECTING A GIFT FROM GOD which is deliberate disloyalty to Deity—Sin! Which is retarding the advance of civilization and the crisis thereof! We must needs seek first for a knowledge of the will of God and its application to our personal, social, moral, economic and political arenas of life. That which the world needs most to know is: Men are the sons of God, and through faith they can actually realize, and daily experience, this ennobling truth! The Kingdom of God IS the will of God WITHIN your mind and soul. Love is the Law of the Universe!

  8. lol I perfectly understand…. God created a flat domed earth were the center and focus of his creation. This is hilarious to watch

  9. My Nanima would tell me stories about Krishna's exploits and how the world was ordered but my Dad having a degree in physics would lie me down on the bed with him, turn off the lights, and tell the long, elaborate story of the Big Bang across our ceiling. My Dad has a fantastic intellect so he could easily answer my questions and years later I'd find he was drawing exactly from physics theories. It felt like no one in my class ever got this sort of introduction to what science really is though, so much wonder just goes out the door at school… I'm not such a fan of Tyson but he did a great job here, it reminds me of my Dad's stories.

  10. There's nothing too distinguishable about life, it's not so opposite from non life when you look at the break down

  11. Aaaaannd to you religious people, the habitable zone is enormously huge, and earth isn't perfectly in the middle of the habitable zone

  12. I just realized that this is an edited version of the first chapter in “Astrophysics for people in a hurry” by Neil

  13. So… basically just trust in your theoretical science?? It sounds like wolf tickets are still selling out. Eat it up, guppies!!

  14. Neil degrasse Tyson is telling you not to believe in the super natural, while asking you to go out on a limb and believe in "speculative theory."

    Checks out!

  15. Why dont other animals evolve with intelligence enough to accomplish what humans accomplish? why did humans evolve so ahead of others

  16. sigh… lol… 1.37 billion years in a galaxy far far away a pin lost its top… really??? not 1.26 ?? or 1.39? and who was there to prove this theory exactly?? no one.. well there ya go.. it is all just a guess.. you take his word because he makes a video with some cool graphics ?? a big bang just occurred out of nothing, or something, or a part of something, jeez really?? lol. such bullshit, as bad as the god thing.. they can't prove ANYTHING they just guess… like carbon dating.. what if something is off just a teeny weeny fraction ?? poof the end result is way way fucked.. lol

  17. For some unknown reason, I realised Neil De Grasse Tyson is probably going to die before I do… and I'll be missing him.

  18. Thanks bro, we are just stardust. Chemically and biologically we are all interelated.Maybe parts and parcels of singularity.

  19. Basically the first half of history of the entire world, I guess but a million times less funny and a million times more interesting

  20. People have tendency to overcomplicate things. NOTHING is infinite on every single way. Gravitational condensation of nothing in to something and then in to singularity bomb it's inevitable.

  21. wanna give a fun fact
    dont know if its in the video bcuz i havent finished watching
    the amount of force needed to break two quarks from each other can go up to 18 TONS
    imagine two tiny spherical magnets, 5mm across.
    now suspend a PLANET from one of these magnets
    that is the fore you would need to break two 5 MILLIMETER neo magnets from eachother if they were equivalent to quarks

  22. so is this the case where every instance of "universe" means "observable universe", as explained in that other video about the universe and how it is infinite and how the big bang isn't really big bang and there's no singularity and all that?

  23. Stop, go outside, and look around. I ask you to search within yourself for what the truth really is. Think about how strategically placed the earth is. Think about the internal feelings you experience when you look at loved ones. Think about the battle between good and evil that nearly every human struggles with. Think about all the animals and plants that provide sustenance for all life on earth. I want you to think of what the actual chances are that a big bang did that. Compare it to this…

    We were intelligently designed by a loving God who provided all the answers of our existence in a book called Genesis. To say that we were all formed by a bunch of chemicals over billions of years is an insult to yourselves. You are so much greater than that.

    Evolution and the Big Bang theory are both religions with members who believe in them according to faith not facts. At least admit it. I do.

  24. So it's a theory therefore it's not true it a guess with a lot of made up numbers. Get back to me when you have a time machine.

  25. "for reasons unknown" is the key here. This does not explain how the cosmos was created. This is not an exact science. In the beginning, God created.

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