1.1 – EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION – STONE AGE TO MODERN AGE
Hi freinds, I am Joy and i am Jennifer. welcome to the world of communication. So today we are going to show you the Evolution of Communication. What differentiate us human from animals is the way we communicate with each other. Here we will show you a brief history of how communication system evolved. The whole journey of communication started with the caveman. The cavemen used to gather around fire to discuss their day to day activities. We can compare this to modern day social networking sites such as facebook. The one sudden day they decided to record their activities or knowledge. The cavemen then started to inscribing on the the caves. We can compare this to modern day blogging. The problem with this communication method was it was localised. When people started moving out of the caves, long distance communication became very important. Smoke Signal This was the first long distance
communication. It was used in Northern America where each tribe has its own signalling system.
A smoke from top of the hill signified danger. Smoke signal was also used in Ancient China.
The soldiers stationed at the Great Wall would alert for danger using smoke signal from tower
to tower. In this way they could transmit message as far as 750km within a few hours.
The smoke signal is still used in Vatican to indicate the selection of new Pope. Pigeons Due to their natural homing ability pigeons
were extensively used for long distance communication. The Pigeons were used by Persians, Romans,
Greeks, Mughals. In 19th Century Pigeons were also used to transmit stock quotations
from one city to another. Cher Ami, a homing pigeon, was awarded the French War Cross for
her services during world war 1. TV series Game of Thrones has shown the use
of Raven instead of pigeon for long distance communication. Pony Express From ancient time Kings have been using human
messenger to relay messages. Pony express was a first of its kind mail service delivering
messages, mails, newspapers and small packages by horseback using small relay stations. It
is regarded as the first courier service. It was used in the mid 19th Century to communicate
between East Coast and West Coast of America. Semaphore Flag Semaphore flag was used in maritime during
the late 19th century. The word semaphore is derived from greek word sema meaning sign
and phero meaning bearer. It is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance
by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods and disk. It is still used during
underway replenishment at sea and is acceptable mode of communication for emergency. Telegraph Telegraphy was the greatest breakthrough in
the field of communication. Although the smoke signal and semaphore flags were different
form of telegraphy but the harnessing of electricity in the late 19th Century gave birth to electric
telegraphy. Morse code is still used globally as a mode of communication. Till a couple
of decades ago Telegraphy was the most popular form of long distance communication. The US
discontinued the use of Telegraph in 2006. India’s BSNL owned telegraph service ended
in 2013. It was reportedly the world’s last existing true electric commercial telegraph
system. RADIO –
The term Radio in latin means Beam of light. In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell showed mathematically
that electromagnetic waves could propagate through free space. The effects of electromagnetic
waves were observed before and after Maxwell but no one could detect its presence. In 1886
Heinrich Hertz established the existence of Electromagnetic Waves. In 1888 he demonstrated
that one could produce and detect electromagnetic waves which we today call as radio waves.
In November 1894 Jagadish Chandra Bose at Town Hall of Kolkata ignited gunpowder and
rang a bell kept at a distance using microwave. During the same time an Italian Scientist
Guglielmo Marconi made an electric bell which went off during lightning. This was just the
beginning of a whole new era of distant communication. Early 20th century radio system transmitted
message using continuous waves only. Amplitude modulation was demonstrated for the transmission
of voice and music but with little success. World War 1 accelerated the development of
radio for military communication. After the war commercial radio broadcasting began in
1920 and was a big hit. World war 2 again accelerated the development of wartime purposes
for aircraft and land communication. Telephone
Until now real time communication was was confined to diplomatic purposes or for broadcasting.
Still telegram was the Fastest one to one communication used by common people. In 1876
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. At first, the benefits of a telephone exchange
were not exploited. Instead telephones were leased in pairs to a subscriber, who had to
arrange for a telegraph contractor to construct a line between them, for example between a
home and a shop. It was a luxury that only rich people could afford. Later telephones
took advantage of the exchange principle already employed in telegraph networks. Each telephone
was wired to a local telephone exchange, and the exchanges were wired together with trunks.
Networks were connected in a hierarchical manner until they spanned cities, countries,
continents and oceans. This was the beginning of the public Switch Telephone Network or
PSTN. The major progress took place after the second
world war. So friends,Here we have seen history of communication started from caveman to telephone. But this is just a beginning of golden era in the field
of communication, in the next video we will talk about, how
communication system evolved from wired to wireless and local to global. Also we will
see the role of government to regulate wireless spectrum .and role of private companies to
develop existing network of 4th Generation So friends, don’t forget to subscribe our
channel and like our videos and Stay tuned for upcoming videos.